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Regulation Behavior

Biological Rhythms

Biorythms Terms •Period •Entrainment •Endogenous •Exogenous •Zeitgeber •Phase shift •Suprachiasmatic Nucleus .
Multiple rhythms •Circadian •Ultradian(freq more than 1X a day) •Infradian (freq less than 1X a day) •Seasonal .
Components of Circadian Rhythms Light > entrainment PWs > Circadian Pacemaker > output PW > Overt Rhythm (feedback to circadian pacemaker) .
Circadian Rhythms- Research Mutant mouse lacking gap junctions in SCN: Impaired circadian rhythms •WT and KO show rhythmic behavior in light-dark conditions, but KO becomes fragmented in dark-dark conditions. .
Evidence of Multiple Clocks Human Subject: Bed-rest episodes (black) and body temp (yellow) were entrained to 24-hr day. In temporal isolation, the two rhythms were synchronized for 35 days and then spontaneously desynchronized. .
Biological Clock: Location and Operation . .
Circadian Rhythm in the metabolic activity of the SCN Greater metabolic activity in SCN during light phase vs dark phase .
Hypothalamus: SCN as circadian clock •lesion the SCN (bilaterally), abolish circadian rhythms •isolate the SCN and activity retains a circadian rhythm •transplant an SCN into an animal without, and circadian rhythms are restored •transplant a mutated SCN into an animal without any SCN, and abnormal circadian rhythms are induced
Disorders of Rhythms •Desynchronization due to mismatch between environmental and endogenous cues: –Zeitgeber treatment –Exogenous melatonin
Sleep: defined •Reduced motor activity •Decreased response to sensory stimulation, and reduced interaction with the environment •Stereotypic postures •Easy reversibility (to distinguish from coma, anesthesia, hibernation)
Why sleep •To keep ourselves out of trouble •To conserve energy •To restore something critical in the brain (i.e. to rest) •To help remember, and to consolidate memories •To help us forget .
Sleep EEG Awake: alpha rhythms - beta rhythms REM: beta rhythms - PGO spikes Stage 1: theta rhythms Stage 2: spindles, k complex Stage 3: delta rhythms Stage 4: delta rhythms
Properties of Slow Wave and REM Sleep NON-REM: Reduced muscle tone; few, slow eye movements, low body temp but regulated, parasympathetic activity, low heart rate/blood pressure REM:Paralyzed, profound atonia, except REM, middle ear, diagram muscles move,no thermoregulation (body temp drops), Sympathetic activity, highest brain metabolic rate, Penile erections, clitoral engorgement (not dream related)
Neuroanatomy of Sleep –ACh and NE appear to modulate the rhythms of the thalamus •Three interacting systems of sleep: –Forebrain system can display SWS –Reticular formation (RAS) in brain stem: activates forebrain system from sleep into wakefulness. Projects to thalamus, bforebrain, bganglia –Brain Stem (Pons and medulla) •Pontine system: Triggers REM sleep (ACh). Lesions abolish REM-related paralysis or abolish REM entirely
Transection Studies 1. Isolated brain shows EEG signs of alterations among SWS,REM and wakefulness 2. Isolated forebrain shows constant SWS and sometimes REM-like atonia 3. Transection behind pons causes alternation btw waking, SWS and REM
Serotonergic System •Serotonin system (and tryptophan, 5-HT precursor) promotes sleep (though some serotonergicneurons are involved in waking states) •However, rapheneurons become inactive during REM stage. .
Neurotransmitter Alterations that Affect Sleep and Arousal *5HT: Raphe nuclei: Increase (Promotes sleep), Decrease (Reduces sleep) *NE: Locus coeruleus :Increase (Promotes waking, inhibits REM sleep), Decrease (Abolishes loss of muscle tone in REM ) *DA: Basal ganglia : Increase (Arousal), Decrease (Biphasic effects on sleep) *Ach :Basal forebrain: Increase (Induces REM), Decrease (Suppresses REM)
Classification of Sleep Disorders •Disorders initiating and maintaining sleep –Ordinary insomnia –Drug related insomnia –Sleep apnea –Psychiatric (depression and early awakening) •Daytime sleepiness –Narcolepsy –Daytime sleepiness secondary to insomnia •Disorders of sleep -waking schedule –Persistent irregular rhythm –Situational: Jet lag or shift work •Sleep and partial arousal dysfunction –Sleepwalking, enuresis (bedwetting) –Nightmares, night terrors
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Created by: brown55