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Chapter 10: Thinking

(Concepts, Solving Problems, Making Decisions and Forming Judgements

QuestionAnswer
Cognition All the mental activites associated with the procesing, understanding, remembering and communicating
Concepts Mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people
Prototypes A mental image or best example that incorporates all the features we associate with a category
Algoithm A step-by-step procedure that guarentees a solution
Insight Sudden flashes of insipration
Conformation Bias Our eagerness to search for information that confirms our ideas
Fixation The inablity to see a problem from the fresh perspective
Mental Set Our tendency to repeat solutions that have worked in the past
Functional Fixdness Tendency to preceive the functions of objects as fixed and un-changing
Representativeness Heuristic Judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they represent paticular prototypes
Overconfidence A tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgements
Framing The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisons and judgements
Belief Bias The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or vaild conclusions seem invalid
Belief Perserverance Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discreditied
Artifical Intelligence (AI) The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes, such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language
Computer Neutral Networks Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neutral cells, preforming tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells
Created by: psychdgc on 2007-05-08



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