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7th - 1st Semester

Review these vocabulary words to prepare for the 1st semester exam

Distance How FAR an object is moved is measured in meters (m)
Force How much effort is needed to move an object, measured in newtons (N)
Work This is completed when an object is moved by a force over distance, measured in joules (J) AND newton-meters (Nm)
Chromosomes Genetic information / traits of an organism - stored in these structures, humans have 23 pair.
Heredity How genetic traits are passed on from one generation to the next.
Asexual Reproduction Off spring of plants and single-celled organisms are genetically identical to the original parent.
Respiration glucose + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide + energy (heat)
Photosynthesis water + carbon dioxide + energy from the sun --> glucose + oxygen
Mitochondrion Cellular organelles in PLANTS & ANIMALS where RESPIRATION takes place --> breaking down sugar in the presence of oxygen to produce energy.
Level of Organization Cells make up tissues --> tissues make up organs --> organs make up organ systems of an --> organism.
Leaves Location in plants where photosynthesis takes place – green in color.
Chloroplasts Cell organelle ONLY in plants – site of photosynthesis – chlorophyll give plants their green color.
Vacuole Cell organelle where plants and animals store glucose (starch), water and wastes.
Cell Theory 1. All living organisms contain at least 1 cell. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure AND function for all living things. 3. Cells come from preexisting cells.
Sexual Reproduction Increases the diversity of a population, raising the chances for survival within an environment.
Models A scientific model is a representation of an object or system. Examples of scientific models are a diagram of a cell, poster of the nervous system, a model rocket.
Dependent Variable The MEASUREMENT taken during an experiment. The outcome (measurement) DEPENDS upon the independent variable. EX: The speed of a baseball DEPENDS upon how hard it is hit with a baseball bat.
Independent Variable What you are changing in the experiment to create an outcome. EX: 3 different types of light sources are exposed to the SAME type of plant over the SAME amount of time.
Compost Bin Decomposition of yard and organic kitchen wastes over time to make soil. Common items are grass clippings, fruit rinds, coffee grounds, cow/horse manure.
Cell membrane Cell organelle found in PLANTS & ANIMAL cells. It is shaped like a plastic bag and regulates ALL materials that move in and out of the cell --> water, oxygen, minerals, glucose
Cell Wall Cell organelle that is found ONLY in a plant cell. It provides the shape and structure of the plant cell. Similar in basic function of the human skeleton, shell of a crab, exoskeleton of an ant.
Nucleus Controls all cellular activities in PLANT & ANIMAL cells. It is the “brain” of the cell.
Genes MANY genes make up chromosomes. These bands on chromosomes determine the traits of an organism --> hair color, freckles, webbed toes, hairy knuckles.
Plants PRODUCE glucose (C6H12O6) AND oxygen (O2) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O)
Animals PRODUCE carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) from glucose (C6H12O6) AND oxygen(O2)
Inclined Plane A simple machine that makes work EASIER. It changes the distance and direction an object is moved BUT the SAME amount of work is done EVEN if you lived the object yourself off of the ground.
W = F x d The force to move the tree limb was 35(N). He had to carry it 45(m) to the curb. How much WORK did Mr. Fuentes actually do to move the tree limb? A. 1,575 meters B. 1,575 newton-meters (Nm) C. 1,575 newtons (N)
Created by: swilcox