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Finals study guide

Pharm final study guide

Cretinism a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones.
Myxedema form of cutaneous and dermal edema secondary to increased deposition of connective tissue components in subcutaneous tissue as seen in various forms of hypothyroidism and Graves disease. It is more common in women.
Goiter Thyroid gland enlargement. An enlarged thyroid gland may be caused by thyroiditis, benign thyroid nodules, malignancy, iodine deficiency, or any condition that causes hyper or hypofunction of thy gland.
Neutropenic The presence of neutrophils in the blood, usually less than 1500 to 2000 per microliter, severely low levels of neutrophils can make some predisposed to infection.
Controlled drugs include major pain killers (narcotics) and some sedatives or tranquilizers that can only be ordered by someone with a special license.
Polypharmacy is the use of multiple medications by a patient, especially when too many forms of medication are used y a patient, when more drugs are prescribed than is clinically warranted.
Z-track uses the skin itself as a “door” to seal in the drug and prevent it from leaking back out. Medications of the type that require the z-track technique should be injected into the ventrogluteal site. (Do no massage when done!
Leading zero any 0 digits, which lead a number string in a positional notation.
Six rights Right drug, right time, right does, right patient, right route, right documentation.
Anticholinergic is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Chronotropic effects are those that change the heart rate. Chronotropic drugs many change the heart rate by affecting the nerves controlling the heart, or by changing the rhythm produced by the sinoatrial node.
Inotropic is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
Antidysrthymics work by correcting abnormal cardiac function.
High-density lipoprotein enable lipids like cholesterol and triglycerides to be transported within the water-based bloodstream.
Low-density lipoprotein – enable the transport of cholesterol within the water-based bloodstream. Promotes health problems and cardiovascular disease. (It’s the bad lipoprotein.)
Superinfection is an infection following a previous infection especially when caused by microorganisms that are resistant or have become resistant to the antibiotics used earlier.
Stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth, including the lips, tounge, and mucus membranes. (Symptoms: oral pain when eating or drinking, bad breath, oral ulcers)
Broad-spectrum Drugs are effective against a wide variety of organisms.
Anaphylactic an allergic reaction is so severe the patient has trouble breathing, and rarely the heart my stop
Paradoxical when medical treatment, usually a drug, has the opposite effect to that which would normally be expected. (Pain relief medication causes an increase in pain.)
Adverse reaction is a harmful and undesired effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Antiretroviral used to slow the advance of AIDS infection and support whatever immunity the patient still has. They may also be used to prevent HIV in infants born to HIV-infected mothers or in health care workers who have been exposed to HIV.
Antiviral are used in the immunocompromised patient with HIV infection or for adults and children at risk. Also used for patient with herpes zoster, herpes simplex, genital herpes, or varicella.
Prophylactic procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure a disease. (many vaccines are prophylactic, such as: polio, smallpox, measles, and mumps, Birth control is another example.)
Coumadin Prophylaxis treatment of: venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, A-fib. It is used for management of MI’s and decreased the risk of death; it prevents thrombus formation and embolization after valve placement. Side Effects/Adverse Effects: BLEEDING.
Statin drugs are classes of drugs that lower the level of cholesterol in the blood by reducing the production of cholesterol by the liver. Statin drugs block the enzyme in the liver that is responsible for making cholesterol.Lipitor, Crestor, Zocor.
Guaifesisen used for coughs associated with viral upper respiratory tract infections. It reduces viscosity of secretions by increasing respiratory tract fluid. S/E: dizziness, headache, stomach pain, vomiting. P/T: Avoid while breastfeeding. Teach patient to deep bre
Valium (diazepam) Manages: anxiety disorder. It depresses the CNS, probably by potentiating GABA. Produces skeletal muscle relaxation by inhibiting spinal polysynaptic afferent pathways. Side Effects: dizziness, drowsiness, lethargy. Patient Teaching: Avoid driving while o
Tegretol treatment of tonic-clonic, mixed, and complex seizures. It decreases synaptic transmission in the CNS by affecting sodium channels in neurons. Side Effects: Suicidal thoughts, ataxia, drowsiness. Patient Teaching: Instruct patients that behavioral changes
Proton Pump inhibitors
Created by: kurtandmelissa4