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A&P I Chap 29

Define development: gradual modification of anatomical structures and physiological characteristics from fertilization to maturity
Define inheritance: transfer of genetic material from generation to generation
Define prenatal period: begins at conception and ends at birth
Define postnatal period: begins at birth and ends at death
Define diploid: human cells contain 46 chromosomes, 23 pair each
Define haploid: possessing half the normal number of chromosomes, twice as many chromosomes as is normal
list the phases of meiosis (I and II): 2 cell divisions, Meosis I and II (both have prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) know major events: Interphase before meiosis I, DNA molecules replicate and become pairs of chromatids attached to the centromere, metaphase I has crossover
define crossing over: chromatid segment of each chromosome crosses over and becomes part of the adjacent chromosome in the pair. Helps give variety, reshuffles the genes, exchange of genetic material.
Spermatogenesis produces 4 functional spermatozoa – each with 23 chromosomes
Oogenesis produces 1 functional ovum and 3 non functional polar bodies – each with 23 chromosomes
Define zygote: mature fertilized ovum
What 2 processes are involved in bringing 2 gametes together so that fertilization can take place? Ovulation and insemination. Ovulation: Expulsion of the mature ovum from the mature follicle into the abdominopelvic cavity From there, it enters the fallopian tubes.Insemination: Expulsion of seminal fluid..
Ovulation expulsion of the mature ovum from the mature ovarian follicle into the abdominopelvic cavity, from there it enters the uterine or fallopian tubes
Insemination expulsion of seminal fluid from the male urethra into the female vagina, several million sperm enter female reproductive tract with each ejaculation of semen.
Define fertilization: conception
Where does fertilization generally take place? Outer 1/3 of the uterine tubes
In what way does the ovum contribute to the success of fertilization? Chemotaxis: special peptides attract the sperm
Define fertilization membrane: thick film becomes an impenetrable layer and describe its function, causes vesicle just inside ovum’s plasma membrane to release enzymes that inactivate sperm receptors on zona pellucida
Define embryology: science of development of individual before birth
Define morula: a solid mass of cells
Define blastocyst: hollow balls of cells
Know the different structures of the blastocyst Know the different structures of the blastocyst= Blastocyst consists of an outer layer of cells and an inner cell mass. Trophoblast: outer wall of blastocyst. As blastocyst develops further, inner cell mass forms a structure with 2 cavities:Yolk sac and A
List the main functions of the placenta Structural “anchor”, Nutritive bridge, Excretory, respiratory, and endocrine organ.
What hormone do “early pregnancy” tests detect? hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
define gestation period: length of pregnancy (about 39 weeks), divides into 3 trimesters
by the 4 months of pregnancy all of the organ systems of the baby are formed and functioning to some extent
define stem cells: specialized cells that reproduce to form specific lines of specialized cells, they have the highest “stemness” or potency, capable of producing many kinds of cells in the body.
define totipotent: single cell of the zygote, “totally potent”,
pluripotent: cells that can produce many (but not all) kinds of cells, and
multipotent: can only produce a few types of cells
cells from embryonic disk form the 3 germ layers: endoderm: inside layer, ectoderm: outside layer, mesoderm: middle layer.
know 1 structure that each different germ layers eventually forms: Endoderm: forms lining of various tracts, lining of respiratory, GI, and urinary tracts, lining of pancreatic and hepatic ducts.
know 1 structure that each different germ layers eventually forms:Ectoderm: outer germ layer, forms structures around periphery of the body: epidermis of the skin, enamel of the teeth, cornea and lens of the eye.
know 1 structure that each different germ layers eventually forms: Mesoderm middle germ layer, forms most of the organs dermis of skin, skeletal muscles, many glands of the body, kidneys, gonads, components of circulatory system
define histogenesis: process by which primary germ layers develop into different kinds of tissues
define organogenesis: process of how tissues arrange themselves into organs
define birth or parturition: point of transition between the prenatal and postnatal periods of life, fetus signals end of pregnancy
what is the function of oxytocin in birth? Amplifies rate and strength of labor contractions, can stimulate labor contractions in a difficult or delayed delivery
What is the difference between identical: result from splitting of embryonic tissue from the same zygote early in development, have the same genetic code because they are formed from the same fertilized egg
What is the diff… fraternal twins: result from fertilization of 2 different ova and 2 different spermatozoa, can have the same father or two different fathers, it requires production of more than 1 mature ovum
List the 4 most common postnatal periods Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence and adulthood, Older adulthood.
Define the apgar score: system that scores 5 health criteria to assess the general condition of a newborn: heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, skin color, response to stimuli, each is scored from 0-2, a complete healthy newborn will score a 10.
Define puberty: stage of adolescence in which a person becomes sexually mature
Define gerontology: study of aging
List the causes of aging discussed in class Nutrition, Injury, Disease, Environmental factors, “aging” viruses, “aging” genes, Mitochondria lose ability to make ATP, Free radical formation.
List 1 change that occurs in the skeletal system during the aging process: bones no longer have clean-cut margins, restricts movement because of piling up of bone tissue around joints, reduces bone mineral density, bone loss like osteoporosis
List 1 change that occurs in the muscular system during the aging process: people lose muscle mass with age, loss of fiber, muscle fibers develop into slower type of fibers
List 1 change that occurs in the integumentary system during the aging process: skin becomes dry, thin, and inelastic, sags on the body, increased wrinkling and skinfolds, pigmentation changes, hair thins or is lost.
List 1 change that occurs in the urinary system during the aging process: nephrons in kidneys decreases to almost 50%, blood flow decreases to kidneys, muscle tone is lost in the bladder
List 1 change that occurs in the respiratory system during the aging process: costal cartilages become hardened or calcified, makes it difficult for rib cage to expand and contract as it does in inspiration and expiration
List 1 change that occurs in the cardiovascular system during the aging process: fatty deposits build up in blood vessels walls, narrows passage for blood, astherosclerosis: can lead to eventual blockage of coronary arteries and myocardial infarcation results, hypertension: high blood pressure, hardening of arteries: arteriosclerosis
List 1 change that occurs in the special senses during the aging process: presbyopia-old eye, impaired vision, glaucoma causes an increase in pressure within the eyeball and can result into blindness if left untreated. Sense of taste decrease, loss of appetite,
List 1 change that occurs in the reproductive system during the aging process: women experience menopause, men erection may become more difficult to achieve and maintain, urgency for sex may decline (decreases libido), lubrication of vagina may decrease
List the benefits of aging (the ones I would like for you to know are listed here) Less anxiety and hostility, More control over fear, Less resistance to happiness, Accumulation of learning, Increased wisdom.
Define genotype: chromosomes and their paired genes, contain unique instruction that determine anatomical and physiological characteristics, derived from genotypes and parents
Define phenotype: physical expression of genotype, anatomical and physiological characteristics
Define autosomal chromosomes: most affected somatic characteristics, each chromosome in pair has same structure and carries genes that affect same traits
How many pairs of autosomal chromosomes type of chromosomes do humans have? 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes
Define sex chromosomes: last pair of chromosomes, determine whether individuals is genetically male or female
How many pairs of sex chromosomes do humans have? 23 pairs
Define karyotpe: entire set of chromosomes
Define locus: Gene’s position on chromosome
Define allele: various forms of given gene, alternate forms determine precise effect of gene on phenotype
Define homozygous: both homologous chromosomes carry same allele of particular gene and heterozygous: homologous chromosomes carry different allele of particular gene, resulting phenotype depends on nature of interaction between alleles
Define punnett square: simple box diagram used to predict characteristics
Define genetic recombination: during meiosis, various changes can occur in chromosome structure, producing gametes with chromosomes that differ to those of each parent
What are the two types discussed? Crossing over: chromosomes become rearranged during synapsis,
translocation: reshuffling process, genomic imprinting: portions of chromosomes may break away and be deleted, chromosomal abnoramilties: damaged, broken, missing, or extra copies of chromosomes
Define ectopic pregnancies: improper implantation outside the normal location and tubal pregnancies: implant in uterine tube, do not have enough room to grow
Define placenta previa: occurs when blastocyst implants close to cervix and placenta grows too close to cervical opening
Define abruptio placentae: in a pregnancy of 20 or more weeks along, when implantation occurs in the upper part of uterus, placenta can separate from uterine wall
Define pregnancy-induced hypertension: woman’s blood pressure often rises and stays elevated until the end of pregnancy and preeclampsia: acute hypertension, proteinuria and edema
Define miscarriage: loss of embryo or fetus before the 20th week, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth: loss of baby after 20 weeks, delivery of a lifeless baby
Define congenital abnormalities: any structural or functional abnormality present at birth and
teratogens: acquired effects are caused by disrupt normal histogenesis and organogenesis, chemical, microbes, radiation, smoking, alcohold