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A&P chap 28

Asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction, Requires only 1 parent, Produces offspring that is genetically identical to itself
Define essential and accessory reproductive organs Essential for production of gametes. Accessory organs. Play some type of supportive role in reproductive process.
Know which organs of the male reproductive systems fits into each category Supporting structures include: Scrotum, Penis, Pair of spermatic cords, Know purpose of the reproductive ducts in the male and what organs are a part of these ducts
Define gonads Gonads: Essential organs in both sexes that produce gametes (sperm and ova).
Know which organs are the gonads of the male testis are the gonads of the male.
Know the accessory glands of the male reproductive system Acessory glands: Pair of seminal vesicles ,Prostate, Pair of bulbourethral glands. Testes essential organs. (gonad). Reproductive ducts (genital ducts) convey sperm to outside of the body. Pair of epididymides (epididymis). Parts that make up this: Paired vasa defrentia (vas deferens), Pair of ejaculatory ducts, Urethra
Define testes and scrotum Testes not only contribute slightly to seminal fluid but also add 100s of millions of sperm. Located in the scrotum.
Define tunica albuginea Tough gray-white connective tissue layer which covers the ovarian cortex
know location of the seminiferous tubules located in the testes.
define sustentacular cells and know their function Sustentacular cells are irregular and elongated cells that have a supportive and regulatory function. Important for the developing germ cells. Also called nurse cells or Sertoli cells. Provide mechanical support and protection for spermatids attached to their luminal surface .
define spermatogenesis sperm production
know function of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) These tight junctions form the blood-testis barrier (BTB). Function: Isolates the developing sperm cells, which have active surface antigens different from somatic body cells (from the body immune system)
What are the 2 primary functions of the testes? Spermatogenesis, Hormone secretion
Know main functions of testosterone Promotes “maleness” or development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics. Helps regulate metabolism. Play important part in fluid and electrolyte balance
Know function of the epididymis Serves as one of the ducts through which sperm pass from testis to the exterior. Each stores sperm, which spend 1-3 weeks in this segment of the duct system. While there, sperm mature with support of nutrients from epididymis.
Know function of vas deferens Serves as one of male genital ducts connecting epididymis with ejaculatory duct. Sperm stay in vas deferens for varying amounts of time depending on sexual activity and frequency of ejaculation
Define vasectomy severing or clamping off vas deferens; usually done through an incision in the scrotum.
Know function of seminal vesicles Secrete an alkaline, viscous, creamy-yellow liquid. Constitutes about 60% of semen volume. Fructose is found in this component of semen and is an energy source for sperm motility after ejaculation.
Know function of prostate Secretes a watery, milky-looking and slightly acidic fluid that constitutes about 30% of the seminal fluid volume. Prostatic fluid plays important role in sperm activation, viability, and motility.
Know function of the bulbourethral glands Like seminal vesicles, they secrete an alkaline fluid that is important for counteracting the acid present in the male urethra and female vagina. Mucus produced here serve to lubricate the urethra and helps protect sperm from friction damage during ejaculation.
What 2 muscles control the height of testes? Dartos muscles. Cremaster muscles.
Define corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum corpora cavernosa: 2 larger, uppermost of these cylinders = corpora cavernosa. Smaller, lower cylinder = corpus spongiosum.
Define glans penis Distal part of corpus spongiosum overlaps the terminal end of the 2 corpora cavernosa to form slightly bulging structure
Define prepuce (foreskin) Over glans penis, the skin is folded doubly to form a loose-fitting, retractable casing
Define circumcision removal of foreskin or prepuce.
Know functions of the penis Penis contains urethra, terminal duct for both urinary and reproductive tracts. During sexual arousal, erectile tissue of penis fills with blood, causing organ to become rigid and enlarge in both diameter and length.
Know what structures secrete substances that form semen Testes and epididymis, Seminal vesicles, Prostate gland, Bulbourethral glands.
What is the route of sperm from where they are produced to when they exit the exterior From testis through epididymis to vas deferens to ejaculatory duct to urethra.
Define immune infertility Infertility might also be caused by production of antibodies some men make against their own sperm
Define infertility and sterility Infertility: inability to reproduce. If sperm count falls below 25 million/mL of semen, functional sterility results.
Define oligospermia Seminiferous tubules’ ability to produce sperm is disrupted, Can cause infertility, Results from infection, fever, radiation, malnutrition, and high temperatures in the testes, Many times is temporary
Define cryptorchidism When testes fail to descend about 2 weeks from birth. Readily observed by palpation of scrotum at delivery. Can be caused by hormone imbalances
Define benign prostatic hypertrophy Enlarged prostate. 75% of men older than 50. As prostate enlarges, it squeezes urethra shut.
Transurethral resection Removal of some of the swollen tissue
Prostatectomy Surgical removal of prostate. Used in more severe cases when other treatments have failed.
transurethral resection, and prostatectomy Transurethral resection. Removal of some of the swollen tissue. Prostatectomy: Surgical removal of prostate. Used in more severe cases when other treatments have failed.
Define phimosis and erectile dysfunction Phimosis : Foreskin fits too tightly on the glans. It can’t retract during erection, Circumcision is typical treatment. Erectile dysfunction: Failure to achieve erection. Mostly affects older men. Doesn’t affect sperm production but infertility can result. Can be caused by many things: Cardiovascular diseases, stress, alcohol abuse, tumors.
Know essential and accessory organs of the female reproductive system Essential organs: Gonads = paired ovaries. Female gametes, ova, are produced here. Acessory organs: Uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina (all are internal genitals). External genitals: Vulva.
2 major layers of tissue in the ovaries Outer cortex, Inner medulla.
Define ovarian follicles Ovarian follicles are the basic units of female reproductive biology, each of which is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells found in the ovary. They contain a single oocyte (immature ovum or egg).
Ovarian medulla: Ovarian medulla contains supportive connective tissue cells, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
Define granulosa cells Initially, primary follicle is surrounded by a single layer of granulosa cells. At maturation proceeds, number of granulosa cell layers increases. They begin to secrete increasing amounts of estrogen-rich fluid that pools around oocyte in a space called an antrum
Define antrum is a natural cavity.
Define ovulation release of ovum at end of oogenesis
Define corpus luteum Immediately after ovulation, cells of ruptured follicle enlarge and become the corpus luteum. Become golden in color because of lipid substances contained in them. Corpus luteum grows for about 7-8 days all the while secreting progesterone.
Define oogenesis process that culminates in release of an ovum; “egg production”
What is the main function of the ovaries Endocrine organs – secrete female sex hormones
What are the main parts of the uterus? Body (which contains the fundus). Cervix
What layers make up the wall of the uterus? Endometrium. Myometrium. Parietal peritoneum.
Know 8 uterine ligaments that hold uterus in position 2 broad ligaments, 2 uterosacral ligaments, 1 posterior ligament, 1 anterior ligament, 2 round ligaments.
Know functions of uterus Serves as part of female reproductive tract, Offspring implants into endometrial lining if fertilization occurs, Endometrial glands produce nutrients to sustain developing offspring, Contractions of myometrium occur at time of delivery, If fertilization does not occur, outer layers of endometrium are she during menstruation.
Know 3 divisions of the uterine tubes Isthmus. Ampulla. Infundibulum
Uterine tubes are site of fertilization
Know these structures of the vulva Mons pubis. Labia majora and minora. Clitoris. Glans clitoris.
Define menses or menarche menstrual period. Occurs on days 1-5 of a new cycle. Some individual variation.
Define menopause or climacteric Average age when menopause hits is about 45-50 years of age. Changes in hormone levels over life span.
Know 4 main cycles of the female reproductive cycles Premenstrual or postovulatory phase: Occurs between ovulation and onset of the menses. AKA luteal or secretory phase – because the corpus luteum secretes only during this time. AKA progesterone phase – corpus luteum secretes only this hormone. Duration is fairly constant – usually 14 days
Ovarian Primary role of ovarian cycle is to produce an ovum at regular enough intervals to make reproductive success likely. A secondary role is to regulate the menstrual cycle by means of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Endometrial or menstrual Role of the endometrial (menstrual) cycle is to ensure that the lining of the uterus is suitable for implantation of an embryo if fertilization of the ovum occurs. Constant renewal makes implantation more likely
Know the phases that occur in this cycle Myometrial, Gonadotropic.
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates several primary follicles to begin growing
LH (lutenizing hormone) Stimulates completion of follicle and oocyte growth. Ovulation – mature follicle ruptures, expelling ovum. Luteinization – formation of corpus luteum from ruptured follicle
Define supraovulation Simultaneous rupture of multiple mature follicles.
Breasts are made up of milk-producing mammary glands
Define lactiferous ducts and lactiferous sinuses These main lactiferous ducts converge toward the nipple, like the spokes of a wheel. They enlarge slightly into small lactiferous sinuses before reaching the nipple.
Know function of breasts produce milk.
What 2 hormones are involved in controlling lactation Prolactin. Oxytocin
Define dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea “Painful menstruation”. Menstrual cramps. ~75-80% of women during their reproductive years. Amenorrhea: Absence of normal menstruation.
Define dysfunctional uterine bleeding Excessive uterine bleeding. Results from a structural problem or hormonal imbalance. Causes disruption of blood supply.
premenstrual syndrome Collection of symptoms in premenstrual phase of the reproductive cycle of many women. Headache, irritability, nervousness, weight gain, sleep changes, depression. Treatment focuses on relieving the symptoms
Define vaginitis Inflammation or infection of the vagina. Typical in STDs or “yeast infections.”
Define polycystic ovary syndrome Affects 10% of reproductive-age women. Enlarged ovaries that contain fluid-filled cysts. Form from mature follicles that fail to rupture completely. Most common form of female infertility
Define endometriosis Benign but painful condition. Presence of functional endometrial tissue outside of the uterus: Often attached to ovary or to the pelvic or abdominal organs. Often CAUSES INFERTILITY, dysmenorrhea and severe pain.
What type of cancer is breast cancer? Form of adenocarcinoma
What are the 2 more often forms of treatment? Lumpectomy, Radical mastectomy.
What are the 2 types of uterine cancers Endometrial cancer: Cancer of uterine body. Cervical cancer: Cancer of cervix
What is a diagnostic tool to detect one of those types of cancers? Pap smear:Test used to screen for this type of cancer.
Define sexual Sexual reproduction. Requires 2 parent organisms. Male and female. Each contributes ½ of nuclear chromosomes needed to form first cell of an offspring.