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Clin Path

What is the predominant WBC in cattle, sheep and goats? Lymphocytes
Def: Luekocytosis Increase in WBC's
What is the only cell not capable of phagocytosis? Lympocyte
Cellular immunity is in the? Tissue:T-cells
Humoral immunity is in the? fluid:Blood/plasma B-cells
What is the only cell in the body that recirculates? Lymphocytes
How long can Lymphocytes live? Days to entire lifespan of the host
Lymphocytes use what to travel from tissue to the blood? Lymph
What signs will animals show of Lymphocytosis? None
Abnormal proliferation in any one WBC: Leukemia
What percent of lymphocytes are in blood circulation? 2-3%
Splenic contractions cause Lymphocytosis through what processes? Epinephrine: Fight or flght
Steriods cause lymphopenia by___ lymphocytes Lysing
Will Lymphopenia cause clinical signs? Yes, likely of which ever Dz is present
What are the 2 types of steroids in the body? Endogenous: produce by the body Exdogenous: administered
Plasma cells are _____ cells that make antibodies B cells
Immunosupressive syndromes such as FIV and CIV can cause _______ Lymphopenia
A decrease in all cells is: Cytopenia
decrease production of lymphocytes: Lymphopenia
Lrg lymphocytes are ___ microns and small are ___ microns in diameter *9-11 *7-9
Atypical lymphocytes are abnormal and are usually seen with _____ and _____ infection or neoplasia
Reactive lymphocytes are seen during periods of _____ and are ____ in diameter *antigenic stimulation *15-20 microns
Maturation process of B-cells PPSC ~ Lymphoid stem cell ~ Pre B-cells ~ B-lympoblasts ~ B-prolymphocytes
Maturation of T-cells PPSC ~ Lymphoid stem cell ~ Pre Lymphocytes(thymocytes) ~T-lymphoblast ~T prolymphocytes ~ T lymphocyte
___% of lymphocytes seen on a blood smear are T-lymphocytes 70%
____ % of lymphocytes seen in circulatinf blood are B-lymphocytes 30%
Natural killer cells stay in the ________ to mature Bone marrow
What are the types of Lymphocytes? T-cells ~ B-cells ~ Natural killer cells
___ are the Troop cells and are stored in the lymphnodes and ____ pulp of the spleen *T-cells *white pulp
____ are the "Boss" cells B-cells
T-cells mature in the _______ Thymus
B-cells mature in the ______ Intestines or bone marrow
____ cells are stored in the spleen and Lymphoid tissue B-cells
What cells produce antibodies to protect the body? B-cells
B-cells are associated with ____ immunity Humoral/ specific immunity
What cells are primarily found in the tissue Natural killer cells
Natural killer cells are associated with ____ line of defense 2nd/non-specific immunity
Natural killer cells require no stimulation and kill by ___ contact with a chemical called____ *Direct contact *Perforins
Memory cells are __ or__ cells that clone of the original lymocyte T or B cells
What type of cells remain in the lymphoid tissue in case of second exposure to a pathogen? Memory cells
___ cells respond quicker and stronger to pathogens causing ___ clinical signs *memory *no
3 components of Lymphoid tissue *Bone marrow *Central lymphoid organs *Peripheral lymphoid organs
What is the difference in Lymph and plasma? Lymph comes from plasma, but contains less lrg proteins and more sugar, H20 and electrolytes
What causes Edema? Anterior BP is to high and causes fluid to be pushed from vessels on arteriole side of capillary beds
The Lymph nodes have ducts that contain ____ that engulf "junk" to present to the ____ to Lymphocytes to chemically destroy *Macrophage *Lymphocytes
What is the flow of the Lymphatic system? Tissue ~ Lymphatic ducts ~ Lymph nodes ~Thorasic duct ~ Vena Cava ~ blood circulation
Functions of Lymph: *Removal of excess tissue fluid *Waste material Transport *Filtration *Protein transport
____ is a milky fluid w/fat droplets known as digestive lymph that contains ____ *Chyle *Chylomicron
T-lymphocytes are activated by: Macrophage
____ lymphocytes are found in cortex of the lymph nodes and ___ are found in the medulla *colonie lymphocytes *Macrophage
The spreading of cancer: Metastasis
What oragan is on the L side of the body that contains red and white pulp? Spleen
The spleen contains both ____ and ____ functions *Hematologic *Lymphatic functions
Red pulp of the spleen contains: Macrophage,RBC's, Plt, and sinuses( blood is stored here)
What is the only Spp that does not have a muscular spleen? Ruminants
What are the primary causes for Splenectomies? Trauma and tumors
What are the functions of the spleen? *Blood storage *Removal foreign material(by macrophage) *Lymphocyte cloning
The Thymus is located in the _____ and is most prevalent in ___animals *mediastinum *young
What produces T-cells and kick starts immunity? Thymus
Tonsils are located: *Pharyngeal *laryngeal *intestines *prepuce *vaginal
Define GALT Gut associated lymphoid tissue
The GALT is the ___ Equivalent and is ___% of intestinal mucosa *Bursa *25%
Where is the GALT located? Ileum
What type of cells mature in the GALT? B-cells
What is the Immune systems function: Differentiate self from not self
Any foreign substance that cause immune response: Antigen
Ability of an antigen to cause a Dz: Pathogenicity
Degree of pathogenicity(dz) of an antigen: Virulence
Conditions/Dz's caused by Over reactive immune system: Auto immune Dz's and allergies
Conitions/Dz caused by Under reactive immune system: FIV, CIV,HIV
Lines of defense: 1st: skin/mm/tears *2nd: Phagocytosis/inflammation *3rd: Lymphocytes/ humoral-cellular immunity
What are the 2 types of immunity? Non specific and specific
Non specific Immunity: Inate/natural immunity - 1-2nd lines of defense
Specific Immunity: involves lymphocytes /3rd line Def
What are components of 1st line defense? Physical: hair, skin,mm Chemical: mucus, saliva, normalflora
what are the 5 components of the 2nd line of defense? *phagocytosis *NK cells *Interferons *Complements *Inflammatory response
Def Inflammation: The bodies natural response to insult or injury
What arethe 5 signs of Inflammation? Redness, edema, pain, heat, decreased function
Step one of Inflammatory proc: Vasoconstriction: to prevent hemorrhage ~ mast cells degranulate
Step 2 of inflammatory proc: Vasodialation: a result of histamine =REDNESS ~local hyperemia provides RBC's for 02/healing WBC's defense, plt's for clotting
step 3 of Inflammatory process: fluid from plasma pours into tissue=EDEMA ~histamine causes increased capillary Clot formation: permeability , provides antibodies, enzymes, clotting factors =pain/decreased function
Step 5 Inflammation process: Neutrophil macrophage: Clean up tissue debris causing pyrogens= fever/heat to promote interferon activity
Step 6 Inflammation process: Return to normal: Increase blood flow dilutes/disperses Histamine and Heparin ~ vasodialation/capillary permability return to normal
What are the 3 R's of Specific immunity? *Recognize *Respond *Remember
Cell mediated/Humoral immunity are what line of defense? 3rd
Help T-cells and suppressor T-cells secrete ____ Cytokines
Suppressor T-cells ____ helper and killer T cells ans stop ____ cells from becoming plasma cells *Inhibit *B-cells
What is the cluster of differentiation for Cytotoxic T-cells CD8
What is the cluster of differentiation for Helper T-cells? CD4
What is the cluster of differentiation for Suppressor T-cells? Ts
T-cells develop into ______ cells and destroy via _____ *Sensitized T-cells *Perforins
After B-cells clone that undergo _____ that secrete antibodies. this takes ___ day *Blast transformation *3-6 days
Antibodies have ___ binding sites 4-10
Antibodies are also called _____ Immunoglobulins
What are the 5 classes of Immunoglobulins? *IgG IgA IgM IgE IgD
IgG: (G)reatest # antibodies in the blood, 75-80% - 1st exposure, C.S. will appear -newborns produce
IgA: (Achoo!)Fluids, secretions
IgM: Produced during second exposure - production fast -No C.S.
IgE: (E)osinaphils attracted - assoc w/allergies/mast cells
IgD: IDK Unknown purpose
All antibodies are found on ___ cells and are made of____ *B-cells *amino acids
Created by: brit_2112