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Anatomy-Chapter 11

A person has ____ to ____ liters of blood 4 to 6
The normal pH range of blood is 7.35 to 7.45, which is slightly alkaline
The viscosity of blood is 3 to 5 times thicker than water
Plasma is the liquid part of the blood
Plasma is made up of approximately 91% water
The clotting factors are prothrombin and fibrinogen
Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein
Prothrombin, fibrinogen, albumin, alpha globulins, and beta globulins are all synthesized by the liver
Other plasma proteins are called globulins
Plasma also carries body heat
The three kind of blood cells are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
Blood cells are produced from stem cell in hemopoietic tissue
Lymphocytes mature and divide in lymphatic tissue
Red bone marrow is found in flat and irregular bones, such as the sternum, hip bone and vertebrae
Red blood cells are also called erythrocytes
A normal RBC count is 4.5 to 6.0 million cells per microliter
Hematocrit The amount of RBCs in the blood
A normal hematocrit range is 38% to 48%
Red blood cells contain the protein hemoglobin
Hemoglobin gives RBCs the ability to carry oxygen
The normal range of quantity of hemoglobin is 12 to 18 gram per 100 mL
Red bone marrow may also be called hemocytoblasts
Hypoxia Lack of oxygen
Erythropoetin stimulates the red bone marrow to increase the rate of RBC prodcution
normoblast The last stage of the maturation of an RBC that has a nucleus
Red blood cells live for approximately 120 days
Damaged cells are removed from circulation by cells of the tissue macrophage system
Vitamin B12 is also called the extrinsic factor
Parietal cells of the stomach lining produce the intrinsic factor
Deficiency of B12 or the intrinsic factor results in pernicious anemia
Clumping of blood agglutination
Rupturing of blood cells hemolysis
White blood cells are also called leukocytes
A normal WBC count is 5,000 to 10,000 per microliter
The granular leukocytes are the neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
The agranular leukocytes are lymphocytes and monocytes
WBCs help provide immunity
Neutrophils and monocytes are capable of the phagocytosis of pathogens
Neutrophils are the more _______ phagocytes abundant
Monocytes are the more ______ phagocytes efficient
Immature forms of neutrophils are called band cells
Heparin is an anticoagulant
Histamine makes capillaries more permeable, allowing tissue fluid, proteins and white blood cells to accumulate in the damaged area
T cells recognize foreign antigens and may directly destroy some foreign antigens
B cells become plasma cells that produce antibodies to foreign antigens
T cells and B cells provide memory for immunity
Natural kill cells destroy foreign cells by chemically rupturing their membranes
Leukocytosis high WBC count
Leukopenia low WBC count
Leukemia malignancy of leukocyte-forming tissues
Major histocompatibility complex the genes for the self-antigens
Thrombocytes platelets
Thrombopoeitin a hormone produced by the liver that increases the rate of platelet production
Vascular spasm The contraction of a smooth muscle in a large vessel when it is damaged
Platelet plugs The barrier in a capillary wall when it is ruptured, formed by platelets
Chemical clotting The stimulus for clotting is a rough surface within a vessel, or a break int eh vessel, which also creates a rough surface
The chemicals involved with clotting are platelet factors, chemicals release by damaged tissues, calcium ions, and the plasma protein prothrombin, fibrinogen, Factor 8 and others synthesized by the liver
Vitamin K is necessary for the liver to synthesize prothombrin and several other clotting factors
A clot itself is made of fibrin
Clot retraction the folding of the fibrin threads to pull the edges of the rupture in the vessel wall closer together
Fibrinolysis The process of the dissolving of the clot
The ______ is smooth so abnormal clots do not occur endothelium
Antithrombin prevents excess clotting
A clot is called a thrombus
An embolism is a clot or other tissue that transported from somewhere else and lodged in and obstructs a vessel.
Normal hematocrit for girls 35-45
Normal hematocrit for boys 40-50
Hematocrit= (Red blood cells/Total)* 100 (to convert to percent)
Blood Doping Increasing hematocrit
What percentage of blood is plasma? 57%
Hypertension High blood pressure
Rouleaux formation When RBCs line up to pass through very tiny capillaries one by one
Normal hemoglobin 12-18
Created by: akikoandpoog