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Geo Test 3

Geology test #3

mud -> Shale
Mud->Shale-> Slate (metamorphic rock)
Increased in density Change in grain size (usually increase) Recrientation of material Formation of new minerals Changes in rocks through Metamorphism
Slate foliated
Gneiss foliated
Marble nonfoliated
Quartzite nonfoliated
Thermal/Contact metamorphism (NonFoliated)- heating of rocks near a molten igneous body(magma chamber)... no direct pressure. (limestone->marble)&(quartz sanstone->Quartzite)
Hydrothermal Metamorphism hot ion rich water circulates through the rock causing chemical changes (mid ocean spreading ridges)
Burial & Subduction Zone Metamorphism deep sedimentary basins subduction zone metamorphism in subduction zones. (increase in density)
Regional Metamorphism continent-continent collisions.. mountain building, folded metamorphic rocks and foliation
Impact Metamorphism meteontic impacc causes pressures and high temps.
Foliated Slate and Gneiss
Nonfoliated Marble and Quartzite
Parent rock of Slate shale, mudstone, or silstone
Parent rock of Gneiss Shale, granite, or volcanic rocks
Parent rock of Marble Limestone
Parent rock of Quartzite Quartz sandstone
Low-grade metamorphism slight changes... ex. shale->slate
High-grade metamorphism Dramatic substantial changes ex. shale->slate->gneiss
What drives metamorphism? 1.Heat- higher temps more metamorph.. deeper in earth the hotter 2.Pressure and differential stresses 3.Chemically active fluids- water with other volatiles, aids in recrystalization, mid-ocean spreading ridges
Foliated layered orientation of grains in the rock... rocks slit along layers.. formed by direct pressure, found in Slate and Gneiss
Nonfoliated grains are randomly oriented.. found near a magma chamber.. Quartzite and Marble
Porphyroblastic small # of large crystals in many small grains
Relative Dating superposition, horizontal arrangment, and cross cutting
Youngest rocks on top Principle of superposition
Sediment layers usually deposit horizontally(unless acted upon by tectonic processes) Principle of horizontality
younger features cut across older features Principle of cross-cutting relationships
layers are eroded away and new layers begin Angular uncomformity
Hard to see, caused by a break in deposition and erosion Disconformity
Metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks in contact with sediment layers Nonconformity
Absolute Dating works well with igneous rocks bc you can date them.
Radioactivity spontanious decay of unstable atomic nuclei
Half-Life the time required for half of it a radioactive isotope to decay
associated with convergent plate boundaries ( -><-) shorten and thicken crust... mountain formations Compressional stresses
Divergent plate boundaries(<- ->) lengthen and thin the crust... continental rifts and/or continental break up Tensional stresses
Thansform plate boundaries (//) displacement along fault zone Shear Stresses
Brittle deformation close to the surface...pressures and temps are low... faults
Ductile deformation greater depth... pressures and temps are high...folds
Normal faults Hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall. (divergent/tensional)(mid ocean spreading ridges) SAN ANDREAS
Reverse faults Hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall.. (convergent/compressional) thrust fault
Strike-Slip faults displacement is horizontal and parrallel to the strike of the fault(transform/shear) SAN ANDREAS
Folds compressional stresses.. rock deforms without breaking...
Anticlines upper part of the fold
Synclines lower part of fold
Source of the Earthquake is found the focus or hypocenter
Epicenter the location on earths surface directly above the focus of an Earthquake
Seismograms records seismic waves
waves that travel through the earth Body Waves
Primary Waves (p waves) arrive first at the seismograph (travel fast)
Secondary waves(s waves) arrive second at the seismograph ... travels slow... will never reach opposite end of the earth.
Surface waves travel along the surface (slowest traveling wave)
D" Layer Bottom layer of the mantle
Passive Continental Margins result from continental rifting into continental breakup (ATLANTIC OCEAN)
Active Continental Margins Subduction zones (PACIFIC OCEAN)
Supercontinent before Pangaea about 750 million years ago Rodinia
cycle of continents breakup and assembledge of a new supercontinent Wilson Cycle
E.I.M.D.R.S. Embryonic.Immature.Mature.Declingin.Remnant. Suture.
Embryonic depostion into rift vallies.. E AFRICAN RIFT VALLEY
Immature creates new ocean crust RED SEA
Mature continental margin continues to grow erosion of the continent ATLANTIC OCEAN
Declining closing of the ocean PACIFIC OCEAN
Remnant remnant ocean reamining MEDITERRANEAN OCEAN
Suture continents collide to form mtns HIMALAYAN MTNS
Created by: beakens92