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Medieval Africa SS

Even though Africans were under the control of powerful empires,who did they have a greater sense of loyalty to? Their family and Village
kinship A connection among people by blood, marriage, or adoption.
Kinship groups formed what of many African societies. Government
In a kinship who made all of the important decisions? The Eldest because they had the most life experiences.
clan Kinship groups with a common ancestor
several kinships= a clan
What did most of the village life center around? Farming
3 jobs of women Woman prepared food, cared for children, worked in the fields, and and brought water to the village.
3 jobs of men Men looked after large animals(cattle or camels), cleared land for farming, and built houses and fences.
3 jobs of children Children were responsible for collecting firewood, helping their fathers tend the flocks, and helping the mothers clean their home.
labor specialization the process where someone is focused on a specific task.
What were some different types of labor specialization? The herding of animals and metalworking,which required great skill.
Why was labor specialization important? With different types of jobs a village could trade more, become more wealthy, and grow into a trading city.
How did West African cities begin to grow by. Trade
Name a trading center that formed around 300 CE Djenne
Trade began to grow between West Africa and who else? North Africa
What did West Africa receive from North Africa? salt, cloth, and metals.
What do North Africa receive from West Africa? gold, slaves, ivory, and cattle hides
What rulers in Africa tried to control and make trade smoother. Kings
Kings were also the _____ leaders. Religious
What did West Africa not have for centuries? A written language.
How did West Aficans record their history and culture? Oral history
griot African story tellers who told stories through music.
The clan or kinships’ history was passed on to the next generation through the what? Griot.
Historians and anthropologists have tried to _____ down the griots’ stories in an effort to share them with the rest of the world. write
What formed the basis for government in many African societies south of the Sahara? Families and villages
How did trade help cities and states develop? They got better goods and helped the society get better.
Why were griots and oral history important in West African societies? They past down the history and life of their people.
How might the West African oral history be different from written history? It is harder for it to be accurate.
In 1240 CE the empire of Mali formed in the southern area of what used to be the Kingdom of... Ghana
It was founded by the Malinke people and their great chief named... Sundiata
Sundiata expanded his empire beyond Ghana borders, reestablished the _______ trade, and expanded the trade routes. Gold-Salt
What city did Sundiata establish as a center of culture and trade? Timbuktu
Timbuktu was located near the Niger river where which two vegetation zones met? Desert and Savannah
Under Sundiata’s reign, Mali farmers became in skilled in what? Cotton Farming and Weaving
Sundiata practiced the religion of ______ that was brought by North African traders and the traditional ancestor worship that the Malinke people practiced. He combined the 2 religions. Islam
n 1312 Mali’s most famous ruler King __________ came to power. Mansa Musa
What religion did Mansa Musa Practice Islam
What does Mansa Musa mean in Arabic? King Moses
What did Mansa Musa do in 1324 so he could fufill the first pillar of Islam? He went on the pilgrimage to mecca
What did Mansa Musa Bring on his Hajj to Mecca 12,000 slaves(each holding a 6 pound staff of gold), 80 camels(each holding 300lbs of gold), overall he had about 27,000lbs of gold.
. People and merchants in the Arabian Peninsula were impressed with his lavish caravan and wanted to travel to the empire of ____ and as a result _____ increased. Mali Trade
Where did Mali's Gold go? It went to the Abbasid Empire and European Kingdoms.
What else did Mansa Musa Bring back from Egypt? Scholars and architects.
Timbuktu became a center of culture and learning with universities that taught... Islam, history, law, and science.
After Mansa Musa died his __________ argued about who should rule and this weakened the empire. descendants
The ______ people gradually gained control of a large part of the Niger River and the conquered the empire of Mali. Songhai
From outside of empire of Mali the ______ nomads seized much of Mali territory and Captured Timbuktu in 1433. With this loss, Mali was no longer a strong empire. Berber
In 1496, which Songhai Muslim king drove the Berbers from North America out of Timbuktu? Sunni Ali
2. Sunni Ali killed many of the Berbers in the city to set an example to those that tried to oppose him. fact
Which King defeated Sunni Ali’s son and became the ruler of the Songhai Empire. Askia Muhammad
How did Askia Muhammad expand Songhai borders? He tokk control of the North African salt Mines.
His greatest achievement was ______ the government of his vast empire. organizing
He divided Songhai into ____, put ______ in charge of each province, set up a bureaucracy, and had a standing army and navy. provinces governors
Under his rule, Islam spread throughout the empire and many people in the cities and rural areas of Songhai converted to _____. Islam
When he was older one of his sons took away his power and exiled him to an island. fact
After 11 years another son brought him back and he died in Gao, where his tomb still stands today. IV. Songhai Falls fact
Askia Muhammad’s sons were weak rulers and the army of _______ raided the ____ ____ and captured Gao and ________ ending the empire of Songhai. Morocco Salt Mines Timbuktu
What are the 3 vegetation zones of West Africa? Savannah, Sahel, desert, and the forest
What is a vegetation zone? It is a zone or area of plant life.
What large desert stretches through the northern section of West Africa? Sahara
Describe the Savannahs found in the middle section of West Africa. Savannah is a tropical grassland in a tropical regions. it is flat, grassy, and has scattered trees.
Why was the Niger (Ny-juhr) River important to the people of the Empire of Ghana? (give at least 3 reasons)? Trade Transportion communication The river floods each year giving fertile soil to farmlands.
What resources were found in the Sahara Desert? None
What resources were found in the Sahel/Savannah? Rich salt deposits, crops such as millet. The land is also good for raising cattle.
What resources were found in the forest? Large amounts of gold
What items were traded in the Trans-Sahara trade between people in the Sahara, savannah, and forests of West Africa? (Give at least 5) Salt Gold Crops Slaves Food
What animal was introduced to the area around 300 AD to increase Trans-Saharan trade? The Camel
Why is a dry climate helpful for the evaporation process? The dry climate sucked out all of the water, but leaving the salt behind.
According to historians, why is there salt in the Sahara Desert? There is salt in the Sahara desert because people used to use salt to build things.
What else do you think spread as salt trading caravans move throughout West Africa? I think that the idea of caravan trading and using camels spread.
What two trade items helped create the trading empire of Ghana? Gold and Salt
How did the kings of Ghana become wealthy even though their kingdom did not trade gold or salt? They taxed trade.
How did the kings of Ghana maintain their wealth and power? They maintained their power through a strong army
Give 4 reasons why the people of Ghana needed salt? Medical reasons(it healed lots of people.) In the sun when it’s hot outside, it replaces the sweat. When you produce sweat, you use up salt. Preserves food, ex. Meat can last for 5 years. It adds flavor to food
What city in the Sahara controlled most of the salt production that was traded to Ghana? Taghaza
Why do you think the gold miners south of the Empire of Ghana kept the source of their gold secret? They left it a secret because if people found out, they might want to take the gold.
What was the name of Ghana’s thriving capital city? Kumbi Saleh
How did the kings of Ghana use their gold as a sign of their power? They used their gold as a sign of power by using it as jewelry or accessories.
What was the name of the group of salt-trading people that destroyed the capital of Ghana beginning its decline? Berber (Also know as a thick carpet.)
Kinship Extended family through blood marriage or adoption, woman farmed, men herded cattle, children helped out their parents, eldest made most important decisions, common ancestry, kinships would combine by marriage, loyalty to family, and fairly small group
Village Taxed people that were conquered, centered on farming, made up of clans, began trade, good location on a river, had griots, formed villages for protection and resources.
City/Town , Labor specialization, major trading centers, Kings, traded with surrounding areas, made around rivers, charged taxes.
Kingdom The Biggest of all, had a very powerful king, had griots to pass down stories, Kings controlled trade, armies, taxes, and religion, riches& strongest city, grew through trade.
Created by: noahnoahnoah1324