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Chapter 1 and 14

Campbell Essential Biology

biology scientific study of life
cellular organization all living things are organized and made up of cells... metabolism, homeostasis, reproduction, heredity, movement, stimuli and complexity
cell theory every living thing is made of cells
unicellular made of one cell
multicelluar made of more than one cell
metabolism all the chemical reactions that are going on inside the body
homeostasis perfect balance
types of reproduction asexual and sexual
asexual indivdial reproducing on its own... divides in half and both are identical
sexual BEN <3 YOU RACHEL two parents both contribute half the genetic infromation, offspring is not identical to either parent
heredity transmission of characteristics from parent to child, stored in the dna
movement happens at least once in its lifespan, movement is needed to be concidered alive
stimuli responce to changes inside and outside of the body
complexity all living things are complex
evolution gradual change in a populations characteritics over time
natural selection decent with modification, common ancestor, each adapted to a way of life, driving force of life process by which the individual most adapted to their enviroment are most likly to produce heathly offspring who in turn reproduce
taxonomy science of classifiying living things into groups
list the 7 taxonomy classifications kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species King Philip Came Over For Great Spaghetti
kingdom (5) monera, fungi, protista, plantae, animalia
monera blue green alge and bacteria
fungi fungus and mushrooms
protista one celled plants, fungi, and animals
plantae multicelluar plants
animalia multicelluar animals
binimial nomenclature a system of two names, genus-species (genus is captialized, species lower case)
scientific method the method of proving or disproving a hypthesis made off of observations
theory after many retest, if they all result in the same answer, it is a fact science has not disproved
atom one unit of a certain type of element
molecule always have a certain ratio of one type of atom to another
chemical formula short hand of molecule make up
glucose C6 H12 06
non polar compounds that do not have charged ends ex. fats and oils
hydroprobic does not desolve in water(non polar) ex. fats and oils
polar has a negative end and postive end ( - oxygen, + hydrogen) ex. water
hydrophilic water loving
properties of water polar, cohesion, adhesion, high specific heat
cohesion water is attracted to water
adheasion water sticks to other polar compounds
high specific heat water has to gain or lose alot of energy before it changes tempature
acid H+ something that when it breakes up it gives up a hydrogen ion (dissoiates) Hydrogen ion H+
base OH- something when it is dossoiates it releases hydroxide ions Hydroxide ion OH-
pH scale 1-14 - 1 most acidic and 14 most basic, 7 is neutral
pH each pH is a factor of 10 becasue its logritmic, multiply by ten as you compare
Macromolecules large molecules made up of repeating units called monomers and polymers. ex-carbohydrates, lipids, protiens, and nucleic acids
Monomers small molecules base unit
polymers three or more momomers
Carbohydrates simple surgars contain a lot of carbon
monosaccharides made of one simple sugar, glucose c6h12o6
Disaccharide made of two monosaccharides together
polysaccharides made of three or more monosaccahrides ex-starch,glycogen, cellulose, chitin
Lipids oils and fats made of glycerol and fatty acids
glycerol they are made of heavy and hydrophyllic
fatty acids are light and hydrophobic
monoglyceride one fatty acid tail, but not a true fat
diglyceride two fatty acid tails, not a true fat.
triglyceride three fatty acid tails, true fat.. DO NOT EAT
Rachel a wonderful person
saturated fatty acids C-C-C-C-C hard fats, all carbons have a single bond
unsaturated fatty acid C-C=C-C-C oily at least one double bond between the carbon
polyunsaturated fatty acids three or more double or tripple bonds
Proteins structual, storage, contractile, transport, and enzymes muscle growth and maitnence
Enzymes make reactions go faster
Hormones chemical messengers from one part of the body to another
Amino acids building blocks of proteins 20 in our bodies
Essential amino acids body can not make them, must get them from through eating food
Dipeptide two amino acids
polypetide three or more amino acids
Denatured breaking down structures through heating up or acid, kills proteins
Nucleic acids two types- dna rna
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) found in the nucleus of the cell double stranded-- made of nucleotides
RNA (ribonucleic acid) single stranded made of nucleotides, found in and out of nucleus
Nucleotides nucleic acids, polymoers made of momomers
Created by: acrabtre