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Dr. Pruitt's Exam 3

What are gender roles? The characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of females and males
What is gender stratification? People's unequal access to wealth, power, status, prestige, and other valued resources as a result of their sex
By the third grade what performance differences emerge between boys and girls in math, science, and reading? Boys, on average, outperform girls in math and science, while girls outperform boys in reading
What is sexual harassment? Any unwanted sexual advance, request for sexual favors, or other conduct of a sexual nature that makes a person uncomfortable and interferes with her or his work
What are asexuals? Those who lack any interest in or desire for sex
What percent of Americans say that gay men and women should have equal rights in the workplace? 89%
What is abortion, and how does it occur? The expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus; can occur naturally or it can be induced medically
How many individuals terminate pregnancies by abortion each year? About 2 percent of American women, or 1.2 million people, terminate pregnancies by abortion each year.
How do African American, Latina, and white women differ in terms of the likelihood of having an abortion? African American women are more than three times as likely as white women to have an abortion, and Latinas are 2.5 times as likely to do so. Abortion is most common among women who are young, white, and never married.
In terms of a woman’s physical health, your text states that abortion in the first trimester is safer than what things? On the physical level, a legal abortion in the first trimester is safer than driving a car, using oral contraceptives, undergoing sterilization, or continuing a pregnancy.
A review of 73 empirical studies found that the risk of mental health problems after an abortion was no greater than what? The risk of mental health problems after an abortion is no greater than having a baby and experiencing postpartum depression
What proportion of Americans support civil unions, and what percent oppose same-sex marriages? A majority of Americans support civil unions, but 56% oppose same-sex marriages
In the U.S. alone, pornography is a _____ industry. $15 billion
According to functionalists, men play an _____ role of _____, and women play an _____ role by _____. A man plays an instrumental role of procreator and women play and expressive role by providing emotional support
Most unmarried fathers don’t _____, and the offspring often experience _____. Most unmarried father's don't support their children, and the offspring often experience instability and poverty.
Liberal feminism maintains that gender equality can be achieved through _____. Liberal feminism maintains that gender equality can be achieved through equal civil rights and equal opportunities.
Radical feminism contends that _____. Radical feminism contends that patriarchy is the major reason for women's oppression, especially men's control over women's bodies and their sexuality.
How do we “do gender”? By adjusting our behavior and perceptions depending on the sex of the person with whom we're interacting.
Why are marriages of first and second cousins common in the Arab world and in some African nations? Across the Arab world and in some African nations, about half of married couples consist of first or second cousins because such unions reinforce kinship ties
What is a nuclear family? A family that is made up of married parents and their biological or adopted children
What is an extended family? the most common family form consisting of parents and children as well as other kin
What percent of all US families are nuclear families? Nuclear families no comprise only 23 percent of all U.S. families
To what does boomerang generation refer? Young adults who move back into their parent's home after living independently for a while or who never leave it in the first place
Kipper is an acronym for what? Kids in parents' pockets eroding retirement savings
What is a marriage market? A process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate
Why do many societies discourage dating? Because marriage is seen as a family decision rather than an individual one
What is serial monogamy? Individuals marry several people, but one at a time
What is polygamy? A marriage in which a man or woman has two or more spouses
Most polygynous groups in the U.S. are what? Most are fundamentalists who have broken away from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day saints
Divorce rates are _____ today than they were between 1970 and 1990. Divorce rates are lower today than they were between 1970 and 1990.
In 2006 the median age for first marriage was ____ for women and ____ for men. By 2006, these ages had risen to 26 for women and 28 for men
Proportionately, nonmarried birth rates are highest for _____ women and lowest for _____ women. Nonmarried birth rates are highest for black women and lowest for Asian American women
A national poll found that Latinos were more likely/less likely than the general population to agree that “relatives are more important than friends.” 82% of Latinos compared with 67% of the general U.S. population said that "relatives are more important than friends."
Female-headed household are more/less common among Asians than in other racial-ethnic groups. Female-headed households are much less common among Asians than in any other racial-ethnic groups
“That violence and love can coexist in a household is perhaps the most insidious aspect of family violence, because we grow up learning that _____.” It is acceptable to hit the people we love." -Gelles 1997
What are the four sources of the most common disagreements among couples? 1. Gender role expectations 2. Children 3. Infidelity, both personally and online 4. Money
Why is it believed that victimization rates for child maltreatment decline as children get older? Victimization rates decline as children get older, presumably because older children can protect themselves or run away from home or because adults fear being reported by older children
Especially at schools that are not affiliated with any religion, a majority of students who describe themselves as religious also report what? A majority of students who describe themselves as religious also report engaging in casual sex, attending campus parties with pornographic themes, and cheating on exams
What is spirituality? Spirituality is a personal quest to feel connected to a reality greater than oneself
What is a cult? What phrase do some sociologists prefer over cults? A cult is a religious group that is devoted to beliefs and practices that are outside of those accepted in mainstream society. Some sociologists prefer to use new religious movement (NRM) rather than cult.
What is a sect? A religious group that has broken away from an established religion
If the world’s population is represented as an imaginary village of 100 people, what percentage of those individuals would identify as Christians, Muslims, and nonreligious individuals or atheists? 33 Christians, 21 Muslims, 16 nonreligious individuals or athiests, 14 Hindus, 6 Buddhists, 6 Chinese Universalists, and 4 believers in another religion
What are the five groups that have had a worldwide impact on economic, political, and social issues? 1.Christianity 2.Islam 3.Hinduism 4.Buddhism 5.Judaism
People with lower levels of educational attainment are generally _____ religious than those with higher education. People with lower levels of educational attainment are generally more religious than those with higher education levels.
What is secularization? A process of removing institutions such as education and government
What is fundamentalism? The belief in the literal meaning of sacred text
Increasing numbers of pharmacists are refusing to _____. Increasing numbers of pharmacists are refusing to fill prescriptions for oral contraceptives because doing so violates their religious beliefs
Rituals for major life events reinforce _____. Rituals for major life events and everyday behaviors reinforce the members' feeling of belonging to a group
A study of 59 industrialized and developing countries found that religious beliefs that encourage _____ spur _____. A study of 59 industrialized and developing countries found that religious beliefs that encourage hard work and thrift spur economic growth
In defending the U.S. invasion of Iraq, President Bush said what? "Liberty is God's gift to every human being in the world."
The International Bible Society was criticized by conservatives for doing what? For including gender-neutral wording
The Apostle Paul instructed wives to do what? Wives should submit to their husbands in everything
In Orthodox Judaism, a man’s daily prayers offering blessing for what? A man's daily prayers include this line: "Blessed are thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, that I was not born a woman."
Which of the major world religions treat men and women equally? None of the major world religions treat women equally
What is a ritual? A formal and repeated behavior in which the members of a group regularly engage
Roots of Sexual Orientation -mounting biological/in utero information -cultural effects
Kinsey 1948 Argues that approximately 10% of the population of gay. This is invalid because he did not have a representative sample.
Kaumann 1994 Argues that 2.5% of men are gay, 1.4% of women are gay
Employment Protection -no federal law protecting against sexual discrimmination -20 states + D.C. prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation
Gay Unions -tax deductions, hospital visitation, inheritance
Countries that offer gay marriage Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, South Africa, Argentina, Columbia
Countries that offer domestic partnership Germany, France, U.K.
States offering gay marriage Massachusetts (1st), Connecticut, Iowa, New Hampshire, New York
First legal recognition of civil unions at the state level Vermont-because of the Vermont Supreme Court
Defense of Marriage Act-1996 1.Federal government will not give legal recognition to gay unions 2. States do not have to give legal recognition to the gay unions of other states
Tolerance/Acceptance 1.Females more tolerant 2.People whose parents have accepting attitudes are more tolerant 3.People who have a gay friend 4.Religious fundamentalists, working lower class persons, people without college degree are typically less accepting
sex the biological characteristics with which we are born; these attributes influence our behavior, but do not determine how we think, feel, or act
Gender learned attributes and behavior that characterize people of one sex or the other
What is gender based on? Social and cultural expectations rather than on physical traits; people are born male or female but we learn to be women or men.
Sexism an attitude or behavior that discriminates against one sex, usually females, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex
Types of Prostitution 1.Call girls/escorts 2.Workers in Controlled Parlors 3.Street Walkers 4.Others(internet, migrant workers, truck stop)
What is gender identity? A perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine
What are gender stereotypes? Expectations about how people will, look, act, think, and feel based on their sex
patriarchy Male dominance of a society
Feminism view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is inappropriate
2 Waves of Feminism 1.Late 19th century feminsits were either radical because they wanted to reform all of society's institutions or they were conservative in getting women voting rights 2. 1960's emergence as women became increasingly involved with violence against women
Gender Differences in Pay 1.Education level, work experience, training which give better bargaining 2.Dual labor market: women are disproportionately empoyed in low tiers while men occupy high tiers 3. Discrimination: direct vs indirect (height and weight)
marriage A groups approved mating arrangement and is usually marked by a ritual
Functionalist view on the family Functionalists argue that the family is universal because it fulfills basic needs 1. socialization of children 2. care of sick and old 3.sexual control 4. reproduction
DINKS Double Income No Kids
Conflict theorists view of the family Conflict theorists believe within the family there is a struggle over scarce resources
the second shift household duties that follow the day's work for pay which are typically the wive's responsibility
Homogamy People tend to marry others with similar characteristics (i.e.age, social class, race, levels of education, religious background)
empty nest When the last child leaves home, and the husband and wife a left
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective on Religion -focuses on the meanings people give their experiences -all religions use symbols to provide identity and social solidarity -rituals
Conflict Perspective on Religion -highly critical of religion -Marx = "opium of the masses" because religion removes focus from current misery, it reduces the likelihood the oppressed will rebel -religion legitimizes the social inequalities of society
Functionalist Perspective on Religion -religion is universal because it meets basic human needs (i.e. purpose of life, emotional comfort, promotes social solidarity, controls behavior, provides support for governement)
Created by: taylorann93