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Specific Immunity

MIC 205 Exam 3

What is an antigen? A chemical/molecule capable of stimulating the immune response
What makes a good antigen? proteins (large molecules that don’t change shape)
What is an epitope or antigenic determinant? specific regions of an antigen that stimulate their response
What is a hapten? small molecule that is antigenic because it is attached to an antigen
What are the main characteristics of the specific immune response? acquired, develops over time; specialized; diverse; has memory capabilities; prevents infection; discriminatory between self/non-self; self-limited
How does specific immunity differ from the non-specific immune response? response is antigen dependent, there is a lag time between exposure and maximal response, antigen specific, exposure results in immunologic memory
How do lymphocytes recognize antigens? membrane antigen receptors
What is the difference between T and B cell receptors? T cells antigen receptor is composed of two chains; B cell antigen receptor is composed of four chains
How are we born with the capability of responding to every antigen in the universe? billions of different antigen receptors are created by gene rearrangement and point mutations during development
Why don’t we form antibodies to our own antigens? we have developed tolerance to them
What is the difference between humoral and cell-mediated immunity? humoral-uses antibodies; cell mediated immunity-no antibodies
What cells are responsible for each? humoral-B cells; cell mediated immunity-T cells
What is the Major Histocompatibility Complex? a cluster of genes, located on each copy of chromosome 6 in humans, that codes for membrane-bound glycoproteins called major histocompatibility antigens
What cells produce MHC I proteins? all nucleated cells
What cells produce MHC II proteins? macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells
Which lymphocytes respond to MHC I proteins? cytotoxic T cells
Which cells respond to MHC II proteins? CD4 helper T cells
What is the difference between TH1 and TH2 CD4 cells? TH1-produce cytokines that stimulate macrophages to kill intracellular organisms, stimulate CD8 cells; TH2-stimulate B cells to become plasma cells to produce antibodies
Which cell is responsible for an inflammatory response? TH1 CD4 cells
Which cell is responsible for stimulating B cells to form antibodies? TH2 CD4 cells
Explain why parasite infections increase a person’s chance of having the more dangerous lepromatous form of leprosy. Lepromatous leprosy initiates a TH2 response (antibody response) that is ineffective against parasites
What causes the tubercles that we see with infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis? macrophages fused together surrounded by TH1 cells stimulated by cytokines
What causes the lesions called gummas seen in tertiary syphilis? caused by the body trying to rid itself of the spirochete
Would antibiotics be helpful in treating gummas? yes
What is a superantigen? antigens that don’t have to be processed (phagocytized) by an antigen presenting cell to be recognized by a CD4 cell
What do superantigens do to a host? results in systemic toxicity and suppression of normal, specific, adaptive response
Give some examples of organisms that can produce superantigens. Staphylococcus & Mycoplasma
What is an antibody? protein made against antigen
In which portion of the blood are antibodies found? gamma globulin portion of blood
What is the role of IgA? neutralization and agglutination
What is the role of IgE? triggers release of antiparasitic molecules and histamines
What is the role of IgM? complement activation, neutralization, agglutination
What is the role of IgG? complement activation, neutralization, opsonization, production of hydrogen peroxide, agglutination, ADCC, crosses placenta to protect fetus
Which is found in the greatest amounts in the plasma? IgG
Which is the largest antibody? IgM
Which one can’t cross the placenta? IgM
Describe the sequence of events that lead to antibody production. Macrophage engulfs/digests antigen; Macrophage presents antigen & MHC II on its membrane; CD4 cell reads it and responds as a TH2 cell; TH2 cell stimulates B cells to become plasma cells and secrete antibodies
What role do macrophages and T helper cells play? Macrophages engulf/digest antigens and present them the antigens; T helper cells (CD4 cells) read the antigens and respond
What is a plasma cell? type of white blood cell that produces antibodies
Name 5 ways antibodies protect a host from foreign antigens. neutralize toxins, prevent virus attachment to host cells, fix complement (cell lysis), opsonization (coding), begin destruction of NK cells, catalyze production of hydrogen peroxide
What is immunologic memory? the capacity of the body’s immune system to remember an encounter with an antigen due to the activation of B or T cells having specificity for the antigen and to react more swiftly to the antigen by means of these activated cells in a later encounter
Which antibody is responsible for the secondary antibody response? IgG
What is antigenic variation? antigens have the ability to change through mutations
What is antigenic variation’s effect on the immune response? Memory T & B cells cannot recognize new antigenic type; delays response
Explain naturally acquired active immunity. occurs naturally by living; responds by continually making antibodies
Explain naturally acquired passive immunity. mother transfers her antibodies to fetus across placenta or to infant in milk
Explain artificially acquired passive immunity. gamma globulin (antiserum); comes from people or animals that have had the disease; immediate protection (last only about 3 weeks)
Explain artificially acquired active immunity. vaccination
What is a vaccine? suspension of organisms or parts of organisms used to induce artificially acquired, active immunity
What is the purpose of vaccination? to develop immunity and to hopefully eradicate diseases; herd immunity
What is herd immunity? occurs when the vaccination of a significant portion of a population (herd) provides a measure of protection for individuals who have not developed immunity
What is seroconversion? the development of detectable specific antibodies to microorganisms in the blood serum as a result of infection or immunization
What is a titer? the highest dilution of blood serum giving a positive reaction during titration
How does one get infected with the polio virus? fecal-oral route
What are the symptoms of polio? most people have no symptoms; flu-like symptoms; paralysis
What is the difference between the Salk and Sabin vaccine? Salk-inactivated, kill vaccine, injected, need boosters, stable (can’t cause disease); Sabin-live, attenuated vaccine, oral vaccine, no boosters, unstable (can cause disease)
Which is used in the United States? Why? The Salk vaccine because it can’t cause the disease and we have the means to store it properly and have clean needles
What are monoclonal antibodies? antibodies that are the same because they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of myeloma cells
What kind of cells produces monoclonal antibodies? myeloma cells (cancerous cells)
Why are these cells immortal? because immortal cancerous cells are combined with normal B cells
Why are monoclonal antibodies so useful? because they live indefinitely and produce large amounts of very specific, uniform antibodies
How are monoclonal antibodies being used? treat tumors, blood typing, identify Chlamydia & Streptococcus, pregnancy tests, prevent transplanted tissues rejection, antibodies for passive immunization
Created by: slarmentrout