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When a stimulus is coded through the RATIO of response across multiple cells Across-fiber coding
When multiple pre-synaptic cells all communicate to one post-synaptic cell Convergence
When one presynaptic cell communicates to many post-synaptic cells Divergence
Set of receptors whose activity influences the activity of target cell Receptive field
Type of above: stimulating center increases target response, non-center decreases it Center-surround RF
Type of map that preserves spatial relationships (as along a sensory surface) Topological map
In cortex, disproportionate enlargement of the rep. of a sensory area of low convergence Magnification factor
An area of the brain specialized for processing one particular type of information Module
The problem posed by having several of the above, and yet perceiving wholes Binding problem
Rear layers of neurons in the eyeball Retina
Cells that respond to light; show spontaneous, graded release of inhibitory NT Receptors
Receptors that are convergent, sensitive to motion & low light, mainly in periphery Rods
Receptors that connect few:1, sensitive to color & detail, dispersed plus concentrated in center Cones
Central area of above receptor types only, connected 1:1 for highest acuity Fovea
Next cell in vision pathway after receptors. Shows spontaneous, graded potentials, release excitatory NT Bipolar
Inter-neurons that modify reaction of bipolar, implicated in color opponency Horizontal cells
Next cell in vision pathway after bipolars. Has action potentials, release excitatory NT Ganglions
Formed of the ganglions in the eye Optic nerve
Place where above leaves eye for brain, also called "Blind Spot" Optic disk
Inter-neurons that modify reaction of above, implicated in contrast effects Amacrines
Level of light (bright vs. dim?) that results in greatest release of NT from receptors Dim
Level of light (bright vs. dim?) that results in greatest release of NT from bipolars Bright
High-detail discrimination, as from low convergence, that retains info on diffs Acuity
High likelihood of detection, as from high convergence that crosses next cell's threshold Sensitivity
Cell activity resulting in release of inhibitory NT to cells orthogonal to info pathway Lateral inhibition
Illusion created by lateral inhibition that alters perception of central grey depending on its surround Simultaneous contrast
Direction of inhibition (uni- or bi-directional?) in direction-senstive motion circuit Unidirectional
Nucleus in Thalamus that processes most visual information from eye Lateral geniculate
In cortex, set of cells, in 6 layers, that all respond to the same preferred stimulus Column
In cortex, set of cells that all have same RF and include set of orientation cols & blobs Hypercolumn
Topological map that preserves spatial relationships found on Retina Retinotopic map
Primary Projection area for vision in Occipital Lobe of cortex V1/Striate cortex
Visual pathway specialized for color and detail, that "flows" along bottom of cortex Parvocellular
Parvocellular pathway is also called...because it terminates in this lobe of the cortex Temporal pathway
Parvocellular pathway is also called…because it conveys info that helps you to identify a stimulus or individual Who/what pathway
Small ganglion cells that begin this pathway, with small receptive fields and sustained response X ganglion
Visual pathway specialized for motion and localization,"flows" along top part of cortex Magnocellular
Magnocellular pathway is also called …because it terminates in this lobe of the cortex Parietal pathway
Magnocellular pathway is also called…because it conveys info that helps locate & interact with stimuli Where/how pathway
Large ganglion cells that begin this pathway, with large receptive fields and transient response Y ganglion
Nucleus in Midbrain in this path, processes some visual (esp motion) info from eye Superior colliculus
Though vis cortex damaged & no visual experience, midbrain enables some vis localization Blindsight
Color coding per ratio of activity of 3 cone types reponding to 3 overlapping ranges of freqs Trichromatic vision
Recoding of trichromatic vision via lateral inhibition from Horizontal cells, into Red/Green & Blue/Yellow Color opponency
LGN or Ganglions with R+G-, G+R-, B+Y- or Y+B- receptive fields Opponent cells
V4-mediated process that enables ID of color under diff light conditions (AKA "Retinex Theo") Color constancy
Cells in V1 that respond to line, or gradient, oriented in particular direction Simple cells
Cells in V2 that give best response to moving lines of particular orientation Complex cells
Number of dark/light changes per degree of visual angle Spatial frequencies
Frequency gradients (high vs. low?) that V1 cells in Parvo path are most sensitive to High frequencies
Frequency gradients (high vs. low?) that V1 cells in Magno path are most sensitive to Low frequencies
End of Parvo pathway, includes cells that prefer hand, face, other complex stim Inferior temporal
Deficit from damage to Fusiform Gyrus, patient cannot recognize familiar faces Prosopagnosia
Cortex with direction-sensitive cells, responds best to stimulus moving across retina Medial temporal
Cortex with optic-flow detectors that responds best to contraction/expansion of whole scene Medial superior temporal
In V2 or MT, cells that respond to degrees of diff between location of an image on 2 retina Disparity detector
Membrane vibrated by air molecules moving down Auditory Canal Tympanic membrane
Three tiny bones linked into lever system, amplify vibrations of above Malleus, Incus, Stapes
Membrane vibrated by Stapes, initiating vibration of… Oval window
Thick, incompressible, potassium-rich fluid Endolymph
The coiled, three-chambered tube in Inner Ear Cochlea
Section of central chamber of the cochlea where Receptor Cells are found Scala media
Membrane that runs along floor of the scala media , moves up and down Basilar membrane
Membrane that runs along roof of the scala media , moves forward & back Tectorial membrane
Auditory receptor cells that are deformed between the above two membranes Hair cells
Tiny "hairs" extending from above cells whose deformation initiates transduction Cilia
Ion that enters receptor, decreasing its polarity K+
Ion that enters receptor, causing chain reaction that results in release of NT Ca++
NT released by auditory receptors Glutamate
Type of change in polarity in receptors (graded vs. action potential?) Graded
Cells to which Receptors communicate, whose axons exit to brain Spiral ganglions
Type of change in polarity in these cells (graded vs. action potential?) Action potential
Relative levels of activity across differentially-resonating Bas. Memb. code freq Place coding
Rate of oscillation of Bas. Membrane codes freq per rate of Auditory Nerve Firing Temporal coding
Time during which Auditory Nerve Fibers cannot fire next Action Potential Refractory period
Since each above can only fire 1/1000sec, must work together at alt. intervals Volley principle
Ganglions involved in above can all only fire at the same phase (e.g.) peak of input wave. Phase locked
Diffs used for localization, caused by "head shadow" attenuating high freqs Intensity
Diffs used for localization, comparing peak & trough of lower frequencies Phase
Diffs used for localization, per race of left vs. right Onset signals to Superior Olive Timing
Receptor Cells that show divergent connectivity, for detail freq discrimination Inner hair cells
Receptor Cells that show convergent connectivity, for loudness discrimination Outer hair cells
Axons of spiral ganglion in auditory path form this nerve Auditory nerve
The auditory nerve is part of (#?) Cranial Nerve 8th
Next synapse in Medulla, beginning of separate information pathways Cochlear nucleus
Cell in cochlear nucleus that duplicates the incoming signal Primary like cell
Above helps generate what kind of map that reps low>high frequency across cell array Tonotopic map
Cell in above nucleus that transforms incoming signal into a transient burst Onset cell
Cell in above that transforms incoming signal into one of graded, increasing amp Build-up cell
When information from only one ear is involved, as in the above Monaural
When info from both ears is combined, good for localization Binaural
Next auditory site, also in Medulla, responsible for Orienting Reflex Superior olive
Next auditory site, in Midbrain, where info integrated with visual at nearby site Inferior colliculus
Next auditory site, in Thalamus, site of among other things… Medial geniculate nucleus
Primary Projection Area for audition, in Temporal Lobe of cortex A1
Secondary Auditory area in cortex A2
Area with critical role in the comprehension of speech, in left hemisphere Wernicke's area
Type of complex auditory input processed by higher auditory centers in right hemisphere. Music
Type of receptor cells in Vestibular system Hair
Ion, when not/allowed to enter cell, changes receptor's polarity K+
Changes in velocity & orientation alter this kind of firing rate Spontaneous firing rate
Where receptors respond to head tilt via gravity-induced deformation by crystals Otolith organ
Three fluid-filled tubes that detect changes in angular acceleration Semi-circular canals
Effect when visual and/or motor feedback is inconsistent with vestibular info Motion sickness
Cranial nerve (#?) shared with audition 8th
Class of receptors that respond to temp, pain, itch and hair follicle movement Free nerve endings
Receptors in above class that respond to "noxious" (potentially damaging) stimuli Nociceptors
Class of receptors that respond to touch and internal movement Encapsulated nerve endings
Detection of internal movement of muscles and organs Proprioception
Type of response by above type of receptors (graded or action potentials?) Action potentials
Process by which one type of receptor is fatigued, showing its role in coding Selective adaptation
Nucleus of Thalamus in somatosensory pathway Ventral posterior nucleus
Path for pain and temperature info to brain, crossing over in Spinal Cord Spinal thalamic pathway
Path for touch and internal motion info to brain, crossing over in Brainstem Medial lemniscal pathway
The… somatosensory path tends to be myelinated Medial lemniscal
When damage to one side of spine results in diff losses on ipsi- vs. contra-lateral sides Brown-Sequard syndrome
Location of Primary Projection Area (S1) for somatosensory info Post-central gyrus
Name of topological map of body surface found there Penfield map
Parts of body that fill disproportionate areas of this map Face, tongue, hands
Neurotransmitter released by pain receptors and other cells in pain pathway Substance P
Theory concerning the top-down blocking of pain info entering brain Gate theory
Midbrain area that is probably the source of this blocking Periaqueductal grey area
"Endogenous morphines" released by above Endorphins
Type of inter-neuron in spine that responds to above input Inhibitory inter-neuron
Opiate antagonist that reduces analgesic effects of morphine & acupuncture Naloxone
Type of muscle, made of parallel fibers, attached by tendons to bones Striate
One type of striate, that moves bone toward body Flexors
Other type of striate, that moves bone away from body Extensors
Where neuron releases NT that depolarizes muscle fiber cells > contraction Neuro-muscular junction
Neurotransmitter released by effector neurons to contract muscles Acetylcholine
The contractile unit of a muscle fiber Sarcomere
Thick protein filament with knobby bead-like Cross Bridges along it Myosin
Thin braided protein filament, anchored to muscle, that above hook into & tighten Actin
A proprioceptor that detects passive stretch of a muscle Spindle
A mono-synaptic reflex that contracts muscle to counter passive stretch Stretch reflex
A reflex triggered by Tendon Organs detecting excessive contraction in muscle Golgi reflex
A reflex triggered by pain detectors, rapidly removing skin from source of pain Pain withdrawal reflex
A reflex involving an Oscillator Circuit producing a fixed-rate rhythm Scratch reflex
Reflexes, such as "rooting" or "grasping", found in newborns Infant reflexes
Area of cortex that includes body map, sends movement commands to Stem and Cord Primary motor cortex
Location of primary motor cortex Pre-central gyrus
Anterior to above, active during preparation to move, receives esp from Visual-Spatial areas Premotor cortex
Above includes cells that respond to image of self, or other, performing familiar manual task Mirror cells
Lateral area that plans articulation, helps generate gramatical sentences (esp in left hemi) Broca's area
Dorsal to above, also active during prep, esp for rapid moves, receives from Parietal Supplementary motor cortex
Fast, crossing paths from Pyramids in cortex, esp. for precise control of peripheral moves Cortico-spinal pathway
Above stops at this Midbrain structure on way from Cortex to Medulla & Cord Red Nucleus
Mainly ipsilateral pathways for posture & gross movement of neck, shoulders & trunk Ventro-medial pathway
"Little brain" involved esp in coordinated movement requiring aiming and timing Cerebellum
Movements that occur very rapidly & generally cannot be altered once begun Ballistic
"Telephone poles" in cerebellar cortex that help code time as distance Purkinje cells
"Wires" in above whose action potentials release excitatory NT Parallel fibers
Central areas that receive from "telephone poles" and send output to Brain/Cord Deep nuclei
Set of forebrain structures controlling posture, muscle tone, & smooth movement Basal ganglia
Movement impairment, marked by rigidity, tremors etc, from degeneration of… Parkinson's disease
Midbrain structure whose dopaminergic axons synapse in Basal Ganglia Substantia nigra
Precursor of dopamine, crosses barrier, converted by neurons into dopamine L-Dopa
Name 3 types of neuronal stain that are injected live, but then examined in brain tissue slices Golgi, Nissl, Weigert
Creating or exploiting brain damage to determine if that area is necessary to a certain function Lesions
Method used to generate, for example, the "Penfield Map" of somatosensory cortex in live patients Electrical stimulation
Does staining, lesions, and electrical stimulation get good spatial or temporal resolution? Good spatial, no temporal
Which out of staining, lesions, and electrical stimulation yield information on brain function? Lesions/Electrical stimulation
Record activity using a micro-electrode probe in an active subject Single cell recording
Using a "electrode cap", technique detects the electrical dipoles generated by changing electrical potentials Electro-encephalogran (EEG)
Does an EEG record localized changes in electrical activity or summation of changes over thousands of neurons? Thousands of neurons
The time-locked average of many EEG trials to factor out other brain activity & focus on a particular response Event-related potential
Detection of naturally occurring changes in magnetic fields created by brain activity (complementary to EEG) Magneto-encephalogram (MEG)
Out of Single cell recording, EEG, ERP, and MEG, which requires confining the subject in a large apparatus? MEG
Out of Single cell recording, EEG, ERP, and MEG, which has the best spatial resolution? Single cell recording
Out of Single cell recording, EEG, ERP, and MEG, which is the most expensive? MEG
Aspect of MRI that involves using pulse of radio waves to make hydrogen protons gyrate in body's fluid Resonance
Aspect of MRI that involves aligning the magnetic fields of those gyrating protons Magnetic
Aspect of MRI that involves the release of energy when the protons are allowed to return to 'natural' alignment Imaging
Example of a neurological disease revealed by MRI's capacity to distinguish white from grey matter Multiple Sclerosis
Technique that makes use of the diff in how oxygenated vs deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood respond to magnetic fields fMRI
Is deoxygenated hemoglobin more likely to be found at Active or Non-active sites in the brain? Active sites
What does the "f" in "fMRI" stand for? Functional
Patient is injected w/radioactive fluid that is absorbed w/glucose into active cells & detected as gamma emissions Positron emission tomography (PET)
Technique using 2-D x-rays of tissues that vary in how x-rays penetrate, to build up 3-D image Computed axial tomography (CAT)
Order of MRI, fMRI, PET, and CAT scanning techniques, best to worst, for detail resolution MRI, fMRI, PET, CAT
Order of MRI, fMRI, PET, and CAT scanning techniques, lowest to highest, for cost PET, fMRI, MRI, CAT
Created by: 1055140360