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Psych Final Test I

Compared with Wilhelm Wundt, early behaviorists were much less likely to focus on the study of thinking.
Debates as to whether alcohol abuse is biologically determined or culturally influenced are most relevant to the issue of nature versus nurture.
An integrated explanation of human behavior provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly a biopsychosocial approach.
Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors in most relevant to the ________ perspective. evolutionary
Which perspective would be most helpful for understanding the effect of spaced practice on long-term memory of information? Cognitive.
After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. The perception most clearly illustrates hindsight bias.
When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne's reaction best illustrates critical thinking.
Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of illusory correlation.
Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter using? Naturalistic observation.
A negative correlation between people's work-related stress and their marital happiness would indicate that higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of work-related stress.
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that correlation does not prove causation.
Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption? The experiment.
In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to placebo effects.
In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the dependent variable.
To study inner sensations, images, and feelings, Wilhelm Wundt used a research tool known as introspection.
Focusing on the extent to which behavior is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the ______ perspective. psychodynamic
Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a ________ psychologists. clinical
Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates overconfidence.
Psychological theories organize scientific observations, explain observes facts, and generate hypotheses.
Which research method run the greatest risk of collecting evidence that may be unrepresentative of what is generally true? The case study.
Every twenty-fifth person who subscribed to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine's contents. The researchers were applying the technique known as random sampling.
Surveys are most likely to indicate that reckless behavior and self-control are negatively correlated.
A correlation of +0.70 between children's physical height and their popularity among their peers indicated that higher levels of popularity among your peers is associated with greater physical height in children.
A tendency to notice and remember instances in which our premonitions of disaster are subsequently followed by harmful evens is most likely to contribute illusory correlations.
To test the potential effect of hunger on taste sensitivity, groups of research participants are deprived of food for differing lengths of time before they engage in a taste-sensitivity test. This research is an example of an experiment.
Researchers control factors that might influence a dependent variable by means of random assignment.
In a study of factors that might affect memory, research participants were assigned to drink either an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic beverage prior to completing a memory test. Those who drank the nonalcoholic beverage were assigned to the ______ group. control
SQ3R is an acronym for an effective study method.
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called endorphins.
The vast majority of neurons in the body's information system are interneurons.
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nevous system _______ blood sugar levels and _______ the pupils of the eyes. raises; dilates
When listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different neural networks.
The endocrine system consists of glands.
Which of the following chemical messengers is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone? Norepinephrine.
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations? A PET scan.
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history? Brainstem.
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her cerebellum.
The limbic system structure that regulated hunger is called the hypothalamus.
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating more judgments? Frontal lobes.
The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as association areas.
Due to an automobile accident, Jenny suffered damage to her cerebral cortex in Broca's area. Jenny is most likely to experience aphasia.
The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of plasticity.
The ________ hemisphere typically excels in making subtle linguistic inferences and the _____ hemisphere typically excels in making quick, literal interpretations of language. left; left
An axon transmits messages _______ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages _____ the cell body. away from; toward
The release of _____ to muscle cell receptors triggers muscle contractions.
Depressed mood states are linked to ______ levels of serotonin and ____ levels of norepinephrine. low; low
a drug that blocks the effect of a particular neurotransmitter is called an agonist.
The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory and motor neurons.
The autonomic nervous system most directly controls bladder contractions.
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine _____ blood pressure and _____ blood sugar levels. raises; raises.
To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a EEG.
Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to alcohol dependence.
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking? Frontal.
The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobes.
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by irritability.
In which of the following parts of the brain would a lesion most likely result in aphasia? Wernicke's area.
Research with split-brain patents suggest that the ____ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors. left cerebral hemisphere
The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with unconscious mental activity.
Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also talking on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of selective attention.
Staying up especially late on weekends is most likely to have an influence on the circadian rhythm.
Sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with ______ sleep. stage 4
A recurring sleep stage during which most vivid dreams commonly occur is known as _______ sleep. REM
Which of the following sleep disorders is most strongly associated with obesity? Sleep apnea.
The distinction between manifest content and latent content is central to ____theory of dreams. Freud's wish-fulfillment
Court systems frequently ban testimony from witnesses who have been hypnotized because the procedure often encourages false memories.
Dissociation has been used as an explanations for hypnotic pain relief.
Social influence explanations and divided-consciousness explanations are converging toward a unified account of hypnosis.
As drug users experience neuroadaptation, they demonstrate signs of tolerance.
Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by decreasing REM sleep.
The experience of vivid geometric images and dreamlike scenes is most likely to be triggered by LSD.
A car driver's ability to navigate a familiar route while carrying on an animated conversation with passengers best illustrates the importance of dual processing.
Selective attention is best illustrated by change blindness.
The five-stage sleep cycle provides an example of biological rhythms.
Bright light inhibits our feelings of sleepiness by influencing the production of melatonin.
People who claim to have been abducted by space aliens--often shortly after going to bed--commonly recall being floated off their beds. It is most likely that they have incorporated ____ into their memories. hypnagogic sensations
The large, slow brain waves associated with Stage 4 sleep are called delta waves.
Chronic sleep deprivation is most likely to contribute to suppression of the immune system.
Those who complain of insomnia typically ____ how long it actually takes them to fall asleep and _____ how long they actually slept. overestimate; underestimate
Which sleep disorder is most likely to be accompanied by sleepwalking and sleeptalking? Night terrors.
Te activation-synthesis theory provides a physiological explanation for dreaming.
In an experiment, hypnotized subjects are told to scratch their ear if the hear the word psychology mentioned later. The fact that they do so only if the think the experiment is still under way most clearly supports the theory that hypnosis involves role-playing.
The experience of physical pain following discontinued use of a psychoactive drug best illustrates withdrawal.
Hallucinations similar to those that accompany the near-death experience can be produced by oxygen deprivation.
doctor learns substance abuse of the clients with their abusive home environments, limited sense of life purpose, and changed functioning of their neurotransmitter systems. Doctor is most clearly using a ________ approach to know addictive behaviors. Biopsycholsocial
Created by: lexiivanepps

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