|Classical Learning ||An association is made between two stimuli.
|Operant Learning ||An association is made between a behavior and a consequence.|
|Observational Learning ||Behavior is the result of imitation or experience.|
|Acquisition (Classical Conditioning) ||Learning begins with an association between a CS and a UCS.
|Extinction (Classical Conditioning) ||The behavior stops when the CS no longer introduces the UCS.|
|Spontaneous Recovery (Classical Conditioning) ||The behavior resumes when the CS again is presented with the UCS after extinction and a rest period.|
|Generalization (Classical Conditioning) ||A CR occurs to any stimulus that is similar to the original CS.
|Discrimination (Classical Conditioning) ||A CR only occurs to a certain stimuli even if similar to the original CS.|
|Acquisition (Operant Conditioning) ||Learning occurs when a behavior is rewarded or punished.
|Extinction (Operant Conditioning) ||The behavior stops when the consequences stop. |
|Spontaneous Recovery (Operant Conditioning) ||The behavior resumes after extinction and a rest period when a consequence is again presented with a behavior.|
|Generalization (Operant Conditioning) ||The behavior occurs to any reward similar to the original reward.
|Discrimination (Operant Conditioning) ||The behavior occurs only to the original reward. |
|Shaping ||An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.|
|Latent Learning ||Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.|
|Cognitive Maps ||A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. |
|Overjustification Effect ||The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.|
|Positive Reinforcement ||Encouraging a behavior by giving something.
|Negative Reinforcement ||Encouraging a behavior by taking something away.|
|Positive Punishment ||Discouraging a behavior by giving something.
|Negative Punishment ||Discouraging a behavior by taking something away.|
|Primary Reinforcer ||An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.|
|Conditioned/Secondary Reinforcer ||A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; it is learned to be satisfying.|
|Continuous Reinforcement ||Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
|Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement ||Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.|
|Fixed Ratio Schedule ||Rewards are offered after a set number of responses.
|Variable Ratio Schedule ||Rewards are offered after an unpredictable number of responses.|
|Fixed Interval Schedule ||Rewards are offered after a fixed time period.
|Variable Interval Schedule ||Rewards are offered after varying time periods.|