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AP Psychology Chapte

Classical and Operant Conditioning

QuestionAnswer
Classical Learning An association is made between two stimuli.
Operant Learning An association is made between a behavior and a consequence.
Observational Learning Behavior is the result of imitation or experience.
Acquisition (Classical Conditioning) Learning begins with an association between a CS and a UCS.
Extinction (Classical Conditioning) The behavior stops when the CS no longer introduces the UCS.
Spontaneous Recovery (Classical Conditioning) The behavior resumes when the CS again is presented with the UCS after extinction and a rest period.
Generalization (Classical Conditioning) A CR occurs to any stimulus that is similar to the original CS.
Discrimination (Classical Conditioning) A CR only occurs to a certain stimuli even if similar to the original CS.
Acquisition (Operant Conditioning) Learning occurs when a behavior is rewarded or punished.
Extinction (Operant Conditioning) The behavior stops when the consequences stop.
Spontaneous Recovery (Operant Conditioning) The behavior resumes after extinction and a rest period when a consequence is again presented with a behavior.
Generalization (Operant Conditioning) The behavior occurs to any reward similar to the original reward.
Discrimination (Operant Conditioning) The behavior occurs only to the original reward.
Shaping An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
Latent Learning Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
Cognitive Maps A mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
Overjustification Effect The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
Positive Reinforcement Encouraging a behavior by giving something.
Negative Reinforcement Encouraging a behavior by taking something away.
Positive Punishment Discouraging a behavior by giving something.
Negative Punishment Discouraging a behavior by taking something away.
Primary Reinforcer An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Conditioned/Secondary Reinforcer A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; it is learned to be satisfying.
Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
Fixed Ratio Schedule Rewards are offered after a set number of responses.
Variable Ratio Schedule Rewards are offered after an unpredictable number of responses.
Fixed Interval Schedule Rewards are offered after a fixed time period.
Variable Interval Schedule Rewards are offered after varying time periods.
Created by: bsmithabc on 2011-11-01



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