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4 types of antibiotics? inhibit cell wall synthesis, damage cell membrane, inhibit dna/rna synthesis, inhibit protein synthesis
drugs that inhibit protein synthesis? tetracyclines, aminoglycosides
drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis? penicillin, cephalosporins
drugs that inhibit dna/rna synthesis? nitroimidazoles
administration routes of drugs? intramammary, intramuscular, intravenous, intranasal, intrabdominal, transdermal, subcutaneoous, oral, suppository, topical, etc
drugs that damage cell membrane? polymixins, polyenes
what does bacteriostatic mean? inhibits growth of bacteria
what does bacteriocidal mean? kills bacteria
what kills protozoa? amprolium, lasolacid, monensin
what kills cestodes? praziquantel, etc.
what kills nematodes? organophosphates, macrocyclic lactones, benzimadazoles, levimazoles, amino acetic nitrile derivatives
what kills trematodes? benzimadazoles, triclabendazoles
what kills arthropods? organophosphates, organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.
6 steps of treating subclinical disease? 1. how to measure? 2. cost of measurement? 3. how frequently to measure? 4. any preventative/risk management options? e.g. vaccine 5. management strategies? 6. when do you decide to treat/why?
ICCC levels for clinica/subclinical mastitis? 250,000 subclinical, 800,000 clinical, but MUST also have symptoms
clinical signs of mastitis? change in colour, consistency, volume of milk. animal stops eating. change in tone/symmetry of udder
where would you expect to find microbes? the environment, the animal itself, other animals.
how are viruses/bacteria transmitted/explain each method? vertical transmission/horizontal transmission vertical is mum to baby, either in utero, or via birth canal. horizontal is every other possible way a disease can pass b/w animals, contact (direct/indirect), sex, common vehicle transport, common food etc.
what are the common sites of entry of viruses/bacteria? skin, resp. tract, genitourinary tract, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal tract.
what is herd immunity? placing sufficient immune animals in a herd, to protect susceptible animals from infection. reduced shedding of viruses in the herd.
types of vaccines/explain each one? live/attenuated= less virulent form of a disease, but is alive, so no need for booster shot. killed/inactivated- 'dead' form of a virus. safer than live vaccines but need adjuvants for immune response. toxoids- detoxified bacterial toxins. direct dna
adverse affects of vaccines? teratogenic, abortigenic, unsafe for immunosuppressed animals, localised inflammation, hypersensitivity (egg), neoplasia, underattenuation
what are examples of passive immunity? colostrum, antitoxins, antiserums, antivenoms, etc.
what is the equation for genetic response? R= [(imrm+ ifrf)/(Lm+Lf)]*genetic standard deviation
what is heritability/ the equation for it? heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variance attributable to genetic variance. h^2= Va/Vp
values for high/low heritability? heritability is b/w 0 and 1 less than 0.01= LOW more than 0.03= HIGH
what is index selection? weighting each EBV for the animal by it's economic importance, and adding them up to create an index value for that animal. greater the index value, greater that animals alignment with breeding objectives.
mortality/weaning rates? 1-2% is mortality for most animals. weaning is around 90-95% for cows, 80-85% for sheep
what is mass selection? measuring one trait in all animals at once. accuracy of this is the square root of heritability.
what are advantages of crossbreeding? heterosis- hybrid vigour, ave progeny performance is better than parents. complementarity- two or more traits complement each other
cheapest crossbreeding strategy on commercial farms? two way rotational- don't have to buy in new stock.
what is 'grading up'? series of backcrosses from one pop'n to anothr. keep backcrossing offsrping to purebred, eventually have something indistinguishable from purebred.
what is 'introgression'? example of grading up where you want to introduce a new gene into a breed. e.g. breed A short tail, breed B long tail. cross them, then keep crossing any short tail offspring back to purebred B. eventually get animal same as purebred B but for tail.
what is the formula for effective pop'n size? Ne= 4(Nm x Nf)/ (Nm + Nf)
what is the formula for estimating increase in inbreeding coeffictent per generation? 1/8f + 1/8m (preferably less than 1%)
how many lethal genes carried in an average animal? around 20
what is genetic drift? changes in gene frequency due to chance. smaller the pop'n larger the chance.
how to avoid genetic drift? Ne should be >50/L, or in the long run >500/L
how do we maintain evolutionary potential in long term? Ne should be at least 500, regardless of L
what is ai? artificial insemination. increase selection intensity in males. not viable with sheep though, unnecessary cos the male selection is already pretty intense.
what is moet? multiple ovulation embryo transfer. increase female selection intensity. make females more prolific.
what is jivet? juvenile in vitro embryo transfer. decrease female generation interval.
what is the heirarchy of heritability? quality traits> growth traits> reproductive traits
7 decisions on a commercial breeding sheep or beef farm? 1. breeding objectives 2. which stud to get males from? 3. how to choose males from that stud? 4. use of technology? (AI etc.) 5. age structure of flock? 6. how to choose replacement females? 7. mating strategies?
6 steps for any animal breeding program? 1. breeding objectives 2. selection criteria 3. Ne, L, and use of technology? 4. monitoring and identification protocol 5. determine net economic value of improvement in each breeding objective. 6. carry out selection
Created by: maldog