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A&P Chapter 5.0


an organ consisting of different tissues that are joined to perform specific activities; one of the largest organs in surface area and weight. Skin
Cover; skin Integumentary System
A group of cells that performs a specific function Organ
A group of organs operating together to perform specialized function; next higher level of organization System
Study of skin; the medial specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders Dermatology
Above; Outer, thinner portion, composed of epithelium; composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and contains four types of cells. Epidermis
Skin; Attached to the inner, thicker connective tissue part; composed of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers Dermis
Beneath the dermis; consists of adipose tissue and areolar connective tissue. Subcutaneous later/hypodermis
What are the six functions of the skin Regulation of body temperature; Protection; Sensation; Excretion; Immunity; Synthesis of vitamin D
Horney; a cell that undergoes keratinization; most numerous Keratinocyte
Cells formed in the vassal layers are puched to the surface Keratinization
A protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissue; as the cells are moved upward. Keratin
Second type of cell; Black; can also be found in the dermis. Produces melanin. Melanocyte
One of the pigments responsible for skin color, and absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Melanin
Third type of cell; function in immune responses and are easily damaged by UV radiation Langerhans cells
Fourth type of cell; located in the deepest layer of the epidermis of hairless skin. function in the sensation of touch. Merkel Cell
What are the five layers from superficial to deepest? Stratum corneum; stratum lucidum; stratum gransulosum; stratum spinosum; stratum basale.
Horney; about 30 rows of flat, daed cells completely filled with keratin. Stratum Corneum
Clear; normally, only think skin of the palms and soles has this layer. Consists of about 5 rows of clear, flat, dead cells. Stratum Lucidum
Little grain; has about 5 rows of flattened cells with darkly straining granules Stratum Gransulosum
Thornlike or prickly; has about 10 rows of polyhedral cells with spinelike projections. Melanin is also found in this layer. Stratum Spinosum
Base; single layer of cuboidal to columnar cells contains cells that are capable of continued cell division; contains melanocytes; cells multiple, producing keratinocytes; contains merkel cells Stratum Basale
Ability to stretch Extensibility
Ability to return to original shape Elasticity
Streaks; Small tears in the skin due to extensive stretching that remain visible as silvery white streaks Striae
What are a few cells in the dermis Fibroblasts; macrophages, and adipocytes
Nipple; Causes ridges in the epidermis, producing fingerprints and help us to grip objects. Dermal Papillae
Nerve endings sensitive to touch; others contain blood capillaries Corpuscles of touch (Meissner's corpuscles)
Sensitive to pressure Lamellated (Pacinian) Corpuscles
Reasons for skin color? Melanin, carotene and hemoglobin
White; May be noticed by absence of pigments in hair and eyes as well as skin Albinism
Patches Freckles
Dark colored tumor; among most serious skin cancer; cancer of the melanocytes. Malignant Melanoma
Carrot; Yellow-orange colore and is found in the stratum corneum and fatty areas of the dermis and subcutaneous layer Carotene
appear pale to pink to red depending on the amount and quality of what in red blood cells moving through blood vessels in the dermis? Hemoglobin
Red; redness of the skin, caused by engorgement of capillaries in the dermis with blood; embarrassment, injury, infection, inflammation, or allergic reactions. Erythema
Growths of the epidermis that are variously distributed over the body; Function: Protection; a thread of fused, dead, keratinized cells that consists of a shaft and a root. Hairs or Pili
Superficial portion, most of which projects above the surface of the skin Shaft
Portion below the surface that penetrates into the dermis and even into the subcutaneous layer Root
Surrounding the root; composed of two layers of epidermal cells: External and internal root sheaths surrounded by a connective tissue sheath Hair Follicle
Base of each follicle is enlarged into an onion-shaped structure Bulb
Bulb structure contains an indentation containing many blood vessels and provides nourishment for the growing hair. Papilla of the hair
The bulb also contains a region of cells which produces new hairs by cell division when older hairs are shed. Matrix
Each hair follicle goes through this cycle; consists of growth stage and a resting stage Growth cycle
Hair formed by cells of matrix that differentiate, become keratinized, and die; As new cells are added at base of hair root, hair grows longer; over time it stops. resting begins; most hair is in this stage. Growth stage
after this stage, a new growth cycle starts over replacing old hairs with new. Old hair is pushed out of the hair follicle; Scalp hair grows for about 3 years then rest for about 1-2 years. Resting Stage
Potent casodilator, a drug that widens blood cessel and increases circulation; Stimulates some hair regrowth in some persons with thinning hair. Minoxidil (rogaine)
hair is due to melanin. Synthesized by melanocytes in matric of bulb and passes into cells of melanin Color hair
contain variants of melanin in which there is ton and more sulfur Blond and Red hair
occurs with decline in the synthesis of melanin. Gray
results from accumulation of air bubbles in the hair shaft White
To raise; associated with hairs, a bundle of smooth muscle; located along the side of hair follicle. (goose-bumps) Arrector
What are the 3 kinds of glands Sevaceous, Sudoriferous, Ceruminous
Oily, Oil glands; Are connected to hair follicles. The secreting portions of the glands lie in the dermis and open into the necks of hair follicles or directly onto a skin surface. Sebaceous
Oily substancel keeps hair from dying out, prevents excessive evaporation of water from the skin, keeps skin soft and inhabits the growth of certain bacteria. Sebum
When sebaceous, glands of face become enlarged because of accumulated sebum. Blackheads
SEbum is nutritive to certain bacteria and often result what. Pimples or boils
Sweat to bear; divided into two types, Apocrine and Ecrine Sudoriferous or sweat glands
From sweat glands; found in skin of the acilla (armpit), pubic region, and pigmented area of the breasts; emotional stress Apocrine
To secrete sweat glands; distributed throguhout the skin except for areas such as the margins of the lips, nail beds of the fingers and tows, and eardrums. Eccrine
the substance produced by sudoriferous glands; function helps regulate body temperature, also eliminate wastes Perspiration, or sweat
Wax; Present in external auditory meatus (canal) the outer ear canal. Ceruminous glands
Combined secreation of ceruminous and sebaceous gland Cerumen
Plates of tightly packed, hard, keratinized cells of the epidermis Nails
Portion of nail that is visible Nail body
part that extends pasts the end of the finger or toe Free edge
portion that is not visible Nail root
Little moon; Whitish semilunar area near the nail root; appears white because of vascular tissue underneath doesn't show through die to thickened stratum basale in the area Lunula
Nail growth occurs by transformation of superficial cells of what into nail cells Nail Matrix
Consists of stratum corneum Cuticle
Temperature-sensitive receptors (nerve endings) in the skin which detects the stimulus and send nerve impulses (input) to your brain (control center) Thermoreceptors
Tissue damage from excessive heat, electricity, radioactivity, or corrosive chemicals that destroy the protein in cells; destryos protection. Burn
Involves only the surface epidermis; mild pain, redness, but not blisters First-degree burn
involves the entire epidermis and possibly part of the dermis; some skin functions are lost. Redness, blister formation, edema, and pain. Second-degree burn
Destroys the epidermis, dermis, and the epidermal organs, and skin functions are lost. Third-degree burn
An inflammation of sebaceous (oil) glands that usually begins at puberty when the glands grow in size and increase production of sebum Acne
(decubites ulcers and bedsores.) Caused by constant deficiency of blood over a bony projection that has been subjected to prolonged pressure against an object like a bed, cast, or splint. Pressure sores
account for over 75% of all skin cancers. Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs)
arise from the epidermis but are less common than BCCs and have a variable tendency to spread. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs)
arise from melanocytes and are the leading cause of death from all skin disease because they spread rapidly. Account for only 3% of all skin cancer. Malignant melanomas
an injury to the skin as a result of acute, prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. Sunburn
Away; Scrape; a portion of the skin that has been scraped away. Abrasion
a superificial fungus infection of the skin of the foot. Athlete's foot
a lesion, usually in the oral muscous membrane, caused by type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV), transmitted by oral or respiratory routes. Triggering factors include UV rays, gormonal changes, and emotional stress. (fever blister) Cold Sore
a painful thickening of the skin that may be hard or soft, depending on location. Hard corns are usually found over toe joints, and soft corns are usually found between the fourth and fifth toe. Corn
Containing fluid; a sac with a distinct connective tissue wall, containing a fluid or other material. Cyst
removal of acne, scars, tattoos, or moles by sandpaper or a high-speed brush. Dermabrasion
inflammation of the skin. Dermatitis
localized tumor of the skin and subcutaneous layer that results from an abnormal increase in blood vessels; one type is a port-wine stain, a flat, pink, red, or purple, lesion present at birth, usually at the nape of the neck. Hemangiona
condition of the skin marked by reddened elevated patches that are often ichy. Most commonly cuased by infections, physical trauma, medications, emotional stress, food additives, and certain foods. Hives
relating to the area beneath the skin. Also called subcutaneous. Hypodermic
superficial skin infection caused by strphylococci or streptococci; most common in children. Impetigo
within the skin. Also called intracutaneous. Intradermal
formation of a hardened growth of tissue. Keratois
to tear; wound or irregular tear of skin. Laceration
a round, pigmented, flat, or raised skin area that may be present at birth or develop later. Verying in color from yellow-brown to black. Also called a mole or birthmark. Nevus
Created by: Brezii3