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Marano- Geology

geology study of Earth
minerals solid, inorganic (nonliving), pure substances that make up the Earth
minerals made of only one type of matter, building blocks of rocks
Physical traits to identify minerals color, luster, streak, hardness, cleavage, density
Is the color of a mineral the best indicator for identification? No, because impurities or weathering may change color
Luster the way that light reflects on a surface
metallic luster shiny surface
nonmetallic luster glassy, greasy, oily, waxy, earthy, dull
streak color of powder left when a mineral is rubbed against a hard rough surface
streak plate unglazed porcelain
Hardness mineral's resistance to being scratched
What scale is hardness based on? Moh's scale (1 to 10)
What is the softest mineral on Moh's scale? talc=1
What is the hardest mineral on Moh's scale? diamond=10
Mineral's tendency to break in a specific crystal pattern along areas of weakness? cleavage
Mineral's tendency to break in no particular pattern fracture
density amount of matter in a certain amount of space, how packed something is
formula for density density = mass/volume
label for density g/cm3
specific gravity comparison of mineral's density to water's density (1 gm/cm3)
hydrochloric acid causes _______ on some minerals such as calcite bubbling
Halite tastes like _____ salt
Which mineral is magnetic? magnetite
flame color when minerals are burned they may glow a specific color
Glows green copper
Which minerals will glow (fluorescence)? calcite and fluorite
Rocks made up of one or more _______. minerals
Differences in rocks are based on the _____ of the rock. origin (how it was made)
Texture of rocks sizes, shapes and positions of the grain it is made up of
Three types of rocks Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
Igneous rocks Latin for fire, made of cooled molten matter
Lava when matter is above ground
magma when matter is in the ground
As matter cools, it forms _______. Crystals
The faster the matter cools, the (smaller, bigger) the crystals. smaller
Extrusive (volcanic) igneous rocks form outside of the volcano and have small crystals
Intrusive (plutonic) igneous rocks form inside of volcano from magma and have large crystals
Sedimentary rocks made from sediments
sediments solid fragments (pieces) of material that have been moved by air, water, ice and clumped together
lithification when loose sediments become rock
examples of lithification cementation and compaction
Compaction loose sediments swished together
Cementation loose sediments glued together
Sedimentary rock forms at or near the Earth's surface at normal temperature and pressure
Sedimentary rock may contain fossils
Sedimentary rock forms in layers (beds, strata)
The ______ is the last layer formed and will be the youngest top
Clastic (fragmental) sedimentary rock made up of pieces of sediment named by the size of sediment
Crystalline /chemical sedimentary rock left behind when water evaporates
Metamorphic rock From the Greek "meta" means change, "morph" means form
Metamorphic rock rocks that are changed by heat and pressure
Metamorphic rock characteristics: may look completely different than parent rock
Metamorphic rock will become harder and denser because _____ the depth of the Earth or the movement of the plates on the Earth has squished the rock
Metamorphic rock looks (the same or different) than parent rock. different
Metamorphic rock- characteristics include _______ texture crystal
foliation when the layers appear to align much like the pages in a book because of the pressure
nonfoliated no regular pattern of layers
Types of metamorphism are ______ and ______ contact and regional
Contact metamorphism rock that is in contact with magma
Regional metamorphism enormous pressure for either being very deep within the Earth or when large pieces of Earth's crust collide
Weathering the breaking apart of rocks, minerals, or any object into smaller pieces
erosion the movement of weathered pieces
Relative dating determining whether an object or event is younger or older than other objects of events
Super position principle that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks when the rock is undisturbed
fault a break in the Earth's crust along which blocks of the crust slid past each other
intrusion molten rocks from the Earth's interior that squeezes into existing rock and cools
folding when rock layers bend and buckle form Earth's internal forces
tilting when internal forces in the Earth slant rock layers without folding them
Main layers of the Earth crust, mantle, inner and outer core
hydrosphere water layer of the Earth
atmosphere gaseous layers of the Earth
lithosphere the upper/solid portion of the Earth, made of crust and top of mantle, divided into pieces called tectonic plates
asthenosphere soft, gooey layer of the mantle that the plates float along
mesosphere bottom layer of the mantle
tectonic plates pieces of the lithosphere that move around on top of the asthenosphere
earthquakes occur when tetonic plates rub or smash into each other
seismology the study of earthquakes
epicenter the point of the Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's starting point
focus the point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins
Richter scale measures the strength of the earthquake
San Andreas fault location in California where many earthquakes occur
volcano a mountain that forms when molten rock is forced to the Earth's surface
Ring of Fire plate boundaries surrounding the Pacific ocean where many volcanoes exist
Created by: seagullq