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Chapter 7 Science

Evolution Study Guide

Vestigal Structures structures such as bones that are no longer necessary for an organism to live
Evolution accumulated small changes over time by a species
mutation any change in the DNA sequence
trait physical thing that can be seen about an organism
selective breeding man chooses which traits to breed for such as seedless grapes or juicer tomatoes
speciation process of natural selection where a species becomes seperated to the extent they adapt to their new surroundings to the point that they can no longer interbreed. therefore they are new species
S.A.D. seperate, adapt, division
adaptation changes in an organism that allow it to better survive in its surroundings
fossil imprint or fossilized bones of an organism. Conditions must be just right. Layers of fine sedimentation plus NO oxygen. Explains why there are gaps in the fossil record.
genetic variation differences in individuals in a species. this allows some individuals to be more succesful than others
natural selection process that includes four steps. Environment determines what traits will be passed down
What can insects do? They can adjust very quickly because their generation time is very short
What is the difference between natural selection and selective breeding? In selective breeding, man chooses the traits to be passed on. In natural selection, the environment chooses what traits will be passed on.
Describe the four steps involved in natural selection. 1. Overproduction- species produces more offspring then will survive to adulthood 2. genetic variation- each individual has different traits. Some of theses traits help the individual survive and pass these traits on. others die out
Describe the four steps involves in natural selection cont. 3. struggle to survive - not enough food, water, ect. to go around. Those individuals who have traits that are best adapted to their environment will survive. 4. Succesful reproduction - individuals with the best traits that have allowed them to better
Describe the four steps involves in natural selection cont. adapt to their surroundings will survive to mate and pass on these traits
Explain what happened with the number of European peppered moths after 1850. Many birds eat peppered moths that are on tree trunks. Before the 1850s the trees had a gray look, pale peppered moths blended in. Dark peppered moths were eaten more. After the 1850s, soot and smoke from polution covered the trees. Now the dark peppered
Explain what happened with the number of European peppered moths after 1850 cont. moths blended in and the pale peppered moths showed against the black tree trunks.
Created by: curranca