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cell structure - bio

what are all organisms composed of? cells
what are all cells surrounded by and why? a partially permeable membrane to control exchange between the cell and its environment
what do animal and plant cells have in common? cell surface membrane, cytoplasm containing mitochondria, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes and ribosomes, and a nucleus with a nucleolus and chromatin
what types of cell have centrioles? animal
what do only plant cells have? a rigid cell wall chloroplasts large vacuole
why are some structures not visible with light microscopes? the limit of resolution allowed by the use of light waves
what can be viewed with an electron microscope? dead material
most biological material needs to be ...... to be seen clearly under a microscope stained
how do stains work? the stains bind to specific chemicals or cell structures
cells contain a network of fibres called ....... called the ........ protein cytoskeleton
what does the cytoskeleton allow? to keep the cells shape stable, and allow it to move through a liquid and ove organelles around inside the cell
what does the production of protein involve? an inter-relationship between the nucleus, rough er, vesicles and the golgi apparatus
what is the difference between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells? prokaryotic cells are smaller, have free dna in the cytoplasm, no er, no nucleus, few organelles and smaller ribosomes
what is resolution? the ability to see two distinct points seperately
what are most light microscopes capable of in magnification? X1500
what is the resolution for a light microscope? 200nm
what is the resolution of a electron microscope? 0.1nm
what is the magnification of an electron microscope? 100,000 with SEM 500,000 with TEM
what type of microscope produces 3d images? scanning electron microscope
what is the structure of the nucleus? large, darker patches of chromatin, surrounded by the nuclear envelope, and a large dense area called the nucleolus inside the nucleus
what is the structure of the nuclear envelope? two membranes with fluid inbetween and lots of pores
what is the function of the nucleus? houses all the cells genetic material. The chromatin consists of DNA and proteins. The nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes which are passed into the cytoplasm
what is the structure of endoplasmic reticulum? a series of flattened membrane bound sacs called cristernae. rough er is studded with ribosomes
what is the function of ER? rough er transports proteins. smooth er makes lipids
what is the structure of the golgi apparatus? a stack of membrane bound flattened sacs
what is the function of the golgi apparatus? recieves proteins from the er and modifies them, and then packs them into vesicles to be transported
what is the structure of mitochondria? spherical or sausage shaped, two membranes seperated by a fluid filled space. inner membrane is slightly folded to form critae. central part is called the matrix
what is the function of mitochondria? the site where ATP is produced
what is the structure of chloroplasts? only in plant cells two membranes seperated by a fluid filled space. the inner membrane is continuous with a network of flattened sacs called thylakoids.
what is the function of chloroplasts? the site of photosynthesis.
what is the structure of lysosomes? spherical sacs surrounded by a single membrane
what is the function of lysosomes? contain powerful digestive enzymes which break down materials, eg the head of a sperm cell helps is penetrate the egg by breaking down the material surrounding the egg
what is the structure of ribosomes? tiny organelles. some in cytoplasm and some bound to ER
what is the function of ribosomes? the site of protein synthesis in the cell. act as an assembly line where mRNA from the nucleus is used to assemble proteins from amino acids
what si the structure of centrioles? small tubes of protein fibres
what is the function of centrioles? take part in cell division, they dorm fibres which move chromosomes during nuclear division
Created by: rachel1994