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Comm chap 1

basics of comm

communication process by which indiviuals use symbols, signs and behaviors to exchange information, hope that meaning is shared , contextual
functional perspective of communication examines how we use communication to help us begin, maintain, and end relationships
Relationships interconnections or interdependence between two or more people that function to achieve some goal
interdependence what we do affect other and what others do affects us
affiliation affect or feelings we have for others, has a love-hate continuum to express these
goal achievement relying on communication in order to accomplish particular objectives
influencing others an important function of communication, every communication is influential in one way or another, can be unintentional
control ability of someone or an organization to influence others and the manner in which their relationships are conducted, control is finite, have to negotiate control
six characteristics of communication symbolic, code sharing, culturally bound, intentionality, channel, transactional
symbols arbitrary constructions in the form of language or behaviors that refer to things and concepts
shared code symbolic behaviors are grouped to created a code that are joined to create a meaningful message , participants must share the code used to encode and decode messages, speaking a common language
encoding process of constructing a message for production
decoding process of receiving a message by interpreting and assigning meaning to it
culture shared beliefs, values and practices of a group of people, includes language and symbols, rules and norms
co-culture small groups of people with a culture with distinguished features
communication's intentionality most comm is intentional, but doesnt have to be, ex. blushing , two systems at play ( intentional and spontaneous) ; difference is giving and giving off information
various channels of communication channel: method through which comm occurs, can be voice, books, web etc.
transactional process involves people in both sender and receiver roles and messages are dependent on both people, once a message is sent, it cannot be reversed or repeated in precisely same way
competent scholars use this to describe communication that is effective and appropriate for a given situation
outcome the product of an interchange, the end not the process
process the methods by which an outcome is accomplished, more important in comm than the actual outcome
ethics study of morals, moral choices people make in their relationships
appropriateness of comm meets demands of the situation as well as the expectations of the comm partner and others present
behavioral flexibility ability to have a number of behaviors at your disposal and willingness to use different behaviors in different situation
linear model of comm sender originates communication (message) which is carried through a channel, along the way some interference (noise) occurs but the message arrives changed in some way to the receiver(s)
interaction model incorporates feedback, communicators take turns sending messages, still incorporates noise
competent communication model shows simultaneous communications, and the transactions that occur , 4 spheres of influence (communicators, relational, situational and cultural
cognitions thoughts that individuals have about themselves and others, how well they like who they are, how successful they think they are
behavior observational communication including verbal messages and nonverbal messages
relational context past history, both parties' expectations for the current situation and future, goals
situational context particular circumstances surrounding communication including social environment, physical place and specific events and situations, also includes where you live and work, the time of day and current events in particular environment
cultural context backdrop for situational context and the other contexts, helps determine which messages are appropriate and effective
cultural identity how individuals view themselves as a member of a specific culture
three primary functions in communication expressing affiliation, accomplishing goals (goal achievement) and negotiating control
contextual levels of communication intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, intergroup/intercultural, mass, public , small group
intrapersonal internal, talking to self, thinking about others and processing information, forming impressions, making attributions
interpersonal with another (dyad), involves self disclosure, relational development , intimacy
small group interaction among 3 or more, pursuing common goal, interact as group
public 1 or a few speaking to an audience, relatively one way, use rehotircal devices and imagery
organizational memeber of an organization or between different organizations, formal and informal networks, rules , norms, study leadership and culture
intergroup/intercultural between members of different groups or cultures , identity and influence of group memebership
mass messages on a large scale, mediated (print or electronic) typically by professionals, less immediate feedback
experiments finding causal relationships, applying something to a group
surveys finding attitudes, asking people what they think or do, not doing anything to them
content analysis analyzing the content of messages, systematic quantitative analysis (just observations)
research set of systematic procedures for gathering credible information about some object or process
postulates about communication research orderly universe, cause-effect relationships, scientific integrity
steps of research process specify goals, review prior research, make observations, analyze data, reach conclusions, report results
Created by: hannad