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Tissues p. 37-46

Tissue a group of cells that are organized and work together to perform a function
Histology study of tissues
Epithelial Tissue cells; always found on the exposed surface inner & outer exposed surfaces
Connective Tissue cells & stuff around the cells; made up of cells that are separated by matrix
Matrix liquid- solid & almost anything in between
Muscle Tissue cells; all muscle cells contain 2 proteins, actin & myacin which give them the ability to contract
Nervous Tissue cells; 2 main areas- central nervous system (brain & spine) and peripheral nervous system (nerves-mostly)
Stratified more than one layer
Basement Membrane found at the bottom of the epithelial layer
Simple only 1 layer of cells
Pseudostratified false layers; 1 layer with nuclei at different levels
Squamous fairly thin and broad (fish scale shape)
Cuboidal same height and width
Columnar column shaped, taller than they are wide
Transitional change shape when pulled
Glandular makes something & secretes it
Simple Squamous Epithelium location: capillaries, alveoli function: being very thin allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse through very rapidly
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium location: sweat glands, pancreas, mammary function: make & secrete (sweat, insulin, milk)
Simple Columnar Epithelium location: inner lining of digestive tract including inside of stomach & intestines function: protection, absorption
Mucous protects stomach & intestines
Microvilli thicker than cilia; absorb nutrients
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium structure: cilia, goblet cells, nuclei at different levels location: upper respiratory, nasal cavity, trachea function: helps moisten air we inhale, traps dust & bacteria, cilia moves mucous toward throat, protects the lungs
Stratified Squamous Epithelium structure: dead cells, dying cells, living cells (cuboidal) location: skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, vagina function: protection from from friction
Transitional Epithelium structure: stratified, changes shape location: urinary bladder, ureters, urethra function: allow epithelium to stretch
Glandular Epithelium structure: usually lined with simple squamous epithelium location: glands function: produce & secrete
Matrix unique to connective tissue, material found between cells
Collagen protein, long fiber, provides strength, the most common protein in our body
Elastin protein, shorter than collagen, provides the ability to stretch and return to it's original shape "elastic"
Adipose Tissue never go through mitosis; cells called adipocytes; matrix is gel-like in consistency; located under the skin and covering many of our organs; function-storing fat (lipids) as oil, insulation, cushion some organs (heart, kidneys), protection
Fibrous Connective Tissue/Dense Connective Tissue/Regular Connective Tissue cells called fibroblasts which make the matrix; matrix is mostly collagen with a little elastin (definite direction); located in tendons, ligaments, scars & dermis
Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) found in fluid filled spaces; matrix is collagen and elastin (going in all directions); located in ears, nose, ribs to sternum, between each vertebrae in our back & the ends of long bones; function as flexible framework & protection
Lacuna fluid filled spaces where we find chodrocytes
Bone structure: central canal, canaliculi, lacunae; cells: osteocytes; matrix: minerals small amounts of collagen & elastin; location: bones; function: storage, protection, rigid framework & movemnet
Blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets; matrix: plasma; location: blood; function: red blood cells deliver oxygen, white blood cells protect, platelets stop bleeding, transportation
Red Blood Cells most common and most numerous blood cell, no nucleus; erythrocyte; deliver oxygen
White Blood Cells largest blood cell, 5 types, 2-3 times larger than red blood cells, has a nucleus; leukocyte; protection
Platelets blood cells found generally in clusters; thrombocytes (small fragments); stopping bleeding, transportation
Striated striped
Smooth not striped
Voluntary voluntary
Involuntary automatically controlled; controlled by nervous system, but not consciously
Skeletal Muscle Tissue structure: contain actin & myacin, attached to bone, striated, cells are long, tube-like shape), multiple nuclei, same direction; location: skeletal muscles; function: ability to contract, used to move the skeleton, posture, produce most of our body heat
Cardiac Muscle Tissue structure: striated, intercalated disks where muscle cells meet (communication not connection, branched, forked one nucleus; location: heart; function: create pressure so that it can pump blood
Smooth Muscle Tissue structure: tapered cells, smallest of muscle cells, smooth, involuntary, has 1 nucleus; location: esophagus, stomach, intestines, digestive tract, walls of blood vessels, sphincters; function: push food through & help mix with secretions, gate keepers
Central brain & spine
Peripheral nerves, connections between organs and brain & spine
Neuron cell that can carry nerve impulses (signals), large cell body usually with projections that either gather information or carry a signal
Neuroglial cell brain, spine & nerves, cells in central nervous system that do not carry impulses
Brain Functions storing, processing & analyzing information both consciously & unconsciously, makes decisions
Spine Functions reflexes
Nerve Functions allow communication between central nervous system and body organs
Created by: bco