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wcc bones

wccvet tech bones term 2

osteology study of bone (osseous) tissues and their development
skeletal sys function protection, support and rigidity assits with movement; storage area for minerals, site for blood formation
composition 1/3 organic, osteoblasts, osteocytes
osteoblasts resposible for formation of osteoid tissue; secretea phosphatase; cells divide readily; held in reserve in periosteum and endosteum
osteocytes mature osteoblasts; non-dividing cells; maintain bone and lvng tiss; live in lacunae
osteoclasts respon for breakdown and reabsorb bone; help model and shape healing bones; provide Ca; composed of collagen fibers and gelatinous grd substanc
inorganic 1/2 - 1/3 of bone by weight; minerals give hardness and rigidity; consist mainly of phosphorous and calcium in eq port
ossification formation of true bone by deposition of Ca in a matrix of osteoid tiss
Center of ossification locatlized center of bone formation
articular cartilage thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis where 2 bony surfaces meet
epiphysis ends of long bones
epiphyseal plate growth plate for endochondral ossificaiton
open growth plate growth is still occuring
closed growth plate growth has stopped
metaphysis widenened area bet the diaphysis and the epiphysis
diaphysis shaft of the long bone
periosteum skin of the bone; thin translucent white connect tiss membrane covers the outside of the cortex
periosteum function osteoblasts for healing; blood vesselss; point of attachement for ligaments and tendons; rich nerve supply
medullary cavity space w/in the bone which contains marrow
cortex outer layer of bone; compact bone=dense bone
endosteum thin connect tiss membrane lines the inside of the medullary cavity; contain osteoblasts
bone marrow contained w/in the medullary cavity
red marrow hematopoietic tiss respons for prod of RBC's and WBC's and platelets; adults only found at end of some long bones and flat bones
yellow marrow fatty tiss found in older animal after red marrow ceases to function
compact bone dense bone, forms outer layer of all bones, develops in response to stress on bone, thickens with age
compact bone process haversian sys
cancellous bone spongy bone; interior of bones, more porous, spicules arranged to form a network
long bones bones of limbs (appendicular) longer then wide; function as levers, grows at epiphyseal plat
short bones carpus/tarsus; cube shaped; spongy with thin layer of compact; absorb concussion
flat bones thin flat; 2 plats of compact with a thin layer of spongy bone b/w them; protect vital organs; muscle attachment
irregular bones vertebrae, ear bones
sesamoids patella, fabella resembe sesame seeds; found w/in some tendons
pneumatic bones sinuses, avian; contain air spaces; avian/ appendicular bones
articular surface joint surface where end of 2 bones contact; covered with articular cartilage
articular forms head; rounded articular suf on the proximal end of the long bone; neck; narrower area distal to the head; condyle; cylindrical or spool shaped articular surface; facet; flat articular surface; depression areas that articulate w projections on other bones
non-articular surface not part of a joint, muscle attachement or passageways for vessels
foramen hole in the bone; soft tissue passes through
fossa depressed area occupied by muscles and/or tendons
processes projection from the surf of a bone, often rough for muscle/endon attahcment
articular depressions, acetabulum, glenoid cavity; projections, femoral head, dens
non-articular depression, foramen; projections, processes, tuberosit, spine, neck, trochanter
axial bones that are either on the midline or attached at midline
appendicular bones of the limbs
axial skeleton cranium
foramen magnum hole w/in the occipital bone thru with spine cord passes
temperomandibular joint articulation b/t cranium and mandible
facial bones maxillary and incisive bones (upper jaw); mandible lower jaw
spinal column struture of vertebra; 7 cervical; 12-15 thoracic; 5-7 lumbar; sacral 3-5 (fused to sacrum); coccygeal (tail)
c1 atlas; support skull
c2 axis; peglike process on it crainial aspect the articulates with the atlas
c3-c7 cylindrical, short spinous and tranvers processeses
ribs form rib cage to protect thoracic organs; ventral porition is made of cartilage
costochondral junction bone-cartilage junction at ribs
sternum breastbone, keel; ventral midline of thorax
manubrium most anterior sternal bone
xiphoid most caudal sternal bone
appendicular skeleton thoracic limb connntect to the torso via muslce and tendons; no bony joint
scapula shoulder blade; glenoid cavity, aritculates w/head of the humerus; acromion, distal tip of the scapular spine
humerus bone of the upper arm; head, tubercles, condyle, olecranon fossa, epicondyles
tubercles non-articular processes on the proximal end of the humerus
condyle articulates w/the radius and ulna
olecranon fossa depression that provides space for the olecranon process
radius thick bone of the forearm
ulna finer bone of the forearm
olecranon process projection that forms point of the elbow
trochlear notch articulates with the humeral condyle
anconeal process fits into the olecranon fossa
carpals bones of the carpus; 2 rows of short bones
metacarpals 1 per digit; # medial to lateral
phalanges bones of the digits 2-2 per digit
sesamoids several contained in digits
navicular bone equine - distal sesamoid bone
pelvic limb appendicular; attached via sacroiliac joint
pelvis ilium; most anterior; ischium, caudal; pubis; ventral; acetabulum, articulates with head of femur obturator foramina
obturator formaina 2 large openings in the pelvis; reduces weight
femur thigh bone
femur - head articulates with the acetabulum
femur - neck neck
femur - grt and lesser trochanters sites for muscle attachment
femut - medial and lateral conyles articulate with the tibia
femur - trochlear fossa patellar surface - articulates with patella
patella kneecap; largest sesamoid
fabellae pair of small sesamoids behind femoral condyles
tibia stronger bone of the lower leg
tibial condyles artculate with the femoral condyles
tibial crest anterior surface of shaft
tibial tuberosity projection at proxmial end
medial malleoulus projection at distal end
fibula fragile bone of lower leg, site of muscle attachment
lateral malleoulus fibula - projection at distal end
tarsals bones of the tarsus; 2 short rows
tallus tibial tarsal bone; largest tarsal bone articulates with tibia
calcaneus fibular tarsal bone - second largest tarsal bone
calcaneal tuberosity calcaneus (hock or heel)
metatarsals (blank)
phalanges (blank)
synarthroses immovable joint - united by fibrous tissue or cartilage, teeth in sockets, skull
amphiarthroses slightly movable joints; cartilaginous, pelvis, vertebrae, sternum
diarthroses freeely movable joints, "true joints" , contain synovial fluid
synovial joint - joint cavity cavity enclosed by the synovail membranes and the articular cartilage (otherwise bone on bone)
synovial joint - joint capsule cover of a joint, composed of fibrous conn tissue which is lined by the synovial membrane
synovial joint - fluid liq contained w/in the joint capsule which lubricates and provides nutrition
articular cartilage synovial j; translucent hyaline cartilage covers joints surfaces where opposing joint come together
ligaments strong bands, usually made of white fibrous tisse which bind bones
meniscus fibrocartilaginous plate which divides the joint cavity into 2 compartments (not all joints have meniscus)
flexion decrese in joing angle
extension increase in joint angle
rotation turning around an axis
adduction move towards the midline
abduction move away from the midline
circumduction movement that causes distal end to move in a circle
hyperextension increase in the angle of joint beyond 180 degrees
luxation dislocation seperation of joint marked by stretching/tearing of a ligament
torn ligaments cruciate - drawer sign
hinge type of synovial joint - movement at right angles (elbow, fetlock)
plane type of synovial joint- slight gliding movement between relatively flat surfaces (carpals, tarsals)
pivot type of synovial joint- pivot rotary movem occures around an axis (C1 and C2)
ball and socket type of synovial joint - movement in every direction; hip, shoulder
shoulder scapulohumeral joint
elbow humeroradioulnar joint
knee carpus (equine) femorotibial joint (small animal)
fetlock metacarpophalageal and metatarsophalangeal joints (equine)
pastern proximal interphalageal joint ( equine)
hip coxofemoral joint
stifle femorotibial joint quadrupeds
hock tarsus
fracture any break in bone
fracture skin status simple (closed); compound (open)
fracture type greenstick (young animals); complete, bone split in 2; comminuted bone is broken into frags
healing vessles ruputre; clot forms;connt tiss form granulation; osteogenic progenitor cells divide, osteoblasts secrete phosphtes, callus if formed; osteoid tiss fill in gaps; callus become mineralized
Non-union fractures etiology lack of bone apposition, movement of fracture ends, osteomyelitis
non-union fracture signs failure to heal, lack of callus formation after 7 wks
fracture fixation-internal IM pins, bone plates, cerclage wire
fracture fixation - external kirschner ehmer apparatus (Ke) casts, splints, slings, bandages
Mason-Meta Splint AKA spoon splint, support distal limbs
schroeder-thomas splint used on hind limbs for distraction of Fx segments
spica splint upper limb fixation - hip shouder; support of other fixations
Plaster of paris cast 5-10 min to set, gets hot, very heavy and susceptible to moisture
fiberglass hexcelite, vet-cast; lightweight, rigid, waterproof, more expensive
robert jones and mod robert jones heavily padded, protect and restrict movement
slings velpeau - shouler; ehmer - hip
osteoarthritis (DJD) DJD degenerative joint disease; prvious injury or stress, obesity and aging poor conformation
DJD signs acute or chronic lameness; usually worse after initial rise; progressive
DJD Dx clinical signs; palpation - crepitus on movement; radiographs; synovial fluid tap (color; cloudy yellow)
DJD Tx life-style adj; chndroprotective agents (gloucosamine); nsaids; corticosterioids
Inflammatory arthritis etiology; immune mediate-SLE, rheumatoid, bacterial, lyme disease
inflammatory arthritis signs lameness -leg shifting; fever, stiffness, pain and swelling
Inflammatory arthritis Dx signs, joint fluid aspirate & cytology (WC Ct); blood work, radiographs
inflammatory arthritis Tx depends on cause, antibiotics (tetracycline), corticosterioids (supress immmuine)
Osteomyelitis etiology-traumatic injury to bone, sepsis- bacterial infection; other-bites, foreign body, gunshot
osteomyelitis signs pain, fever, > WBC, swelling and discharge
osteomyelities Dx radiographs, bloodwork
osteomyelitis Tx antibiotics; medications for pain nsaids; surgery to remove dead tissue
OCD Osteochondrosis dissecans etiology unknown
OCD signs med to large breeds, 5-10 months, lameness, shoulder elbow stifle and hock
OCD Dx radiographs
OCD Tx conservative nsaids, rest; surger (laparoscopic), osteoarthrities usually developos
Spondylosis deformans etiology u/known; common in long backed dogs
spondylosis deformans signs bridging of back; spondylosis; back is hunched, tail may raise, distance b/t verterbrae shortens
spondylosis bony bridges of calcium deposits restrict movement and cause pain
Spondylosis deformans Dx radiographs, often is considered in incident finding
spondylosis deformans Tx none, occasionaly pain medications
panosteitis enostosis etiology unknown, affects young dogs 5-12 months, german shepards
panosteitis signs palpation of periosteum in painful, anorexia, lethargy, fever, weight loss; shifting leg lameness
panosteitis Dx clinical signs, radiographs
panosteitis Tx none, nsaids if severe
Hip dysplasia etiology gentic/congenital, seen in large breeds
Hip dysplasia signs lameness in one or both rear limbs, pain/crepitus on palpation of hip joint
hip dysplasia Dx radiographs, anesthesia required, shallow acetabulum, flattend head and shortened neck of femur, OFA VD positioning required for cert
hip dysplasia Tx pain relief, keep weight down, pectineal myotomy, femoral head ostoctory (FHO); total hip replacement; TPO triple pelvic osteotomy
Intervertebral Disc disease etiology long back breeds, repeated mild-moderate traumas
intervertebral disc disease signs acute pain weakness, or paralysis
intervertebral disc disease Dx physical and neurological exam; radiographs, +/- myelogram
Intervertebral disc disease Tx conservative-rest, corticosteroids, muscle relaxants; surgery-laminectomy
metabolic bone disease etiology iadequate nutrition, Ca, phosphorus, Vit D; common in reptiles
metabolic bone disease signs soft rubber bones deformaties, pathological fractures, pain
metabolic bone disease Dx radiographs, history
metabolic bone disease Tx correcting diet, supp w/Ca and Vit D; repair injuries, supportive care
Neoplasia malignant - osteosarcoma; most common in young, Tx is usually amputation with Chemo
Neoplasia benign benign bone tumors, ostoma, ossifying fibroma, chondroma,
neoplasia cysts bone cysts, can be confuse with bone cancer
ccl or acl cranial cruciate ligament injury
CCL/ACL signs lameness, joint swelling, cranial drawer sign is pahognomonic (movement is excessive)
CCL/ACL Tx surgery rest
CCL/ACL etiology etiology; tear of parial tear in the cranial cruciate ligament of the knee, trauma, common in larger , active dogs
CCL/ACL Dx clinical signs; pe; radiographs
Un-united anconeal process portion of the ulna at the elbow joing fails to ossify, resulting in lameness and decrease in mobility; Tx is surgical
Created by: wccvettech