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Scientific Princ.

3 types of muscle tissue -skeletal -cardiac -smooth
strength is: max. force a muscle can exert in a single contraction ex)BB back squats
Power is: max. rate of force a msucle can develop in a single contraction ex) olympic clean and jerk lifting
endurance is: the ability to maintain or repeatedly develop force ex) curl up
5 chronic training responses: -hypertrophy -^bone density -^stored ATP -enhance ADL's -^tolerance lactic acid -enhance neural recruitment
5 acute training responses: -^BP (systolic & diastolic) -^ATP-CP stores -^neural fatigue -^levels of lactic acid -decrease stored glycogen
ligaments: attach bone to bone
tendons: attach muscle to bone
cartilage: -hyaline cartilage -fibrocartilage
fascia: muscle covering
joint capsule: dense ct and membranes
6 functions of bone: -movement -protection -support -rbc production -energy storage -calcium storage
bones are made with: -calcium -protein
deformation: the "give" bones have to allow absorption of impact
characteristics of skeletal muscle: -elasticity (stretchable & pliable) -extensibility (extends & protrudes) -excitability (neural & chemical compounds) -contractility (muscle contraction ability)
1 muscle cell is made up of proteins: actin and myosin
actin and myosin form blocks called: sarcomeres
sarcomeres connect together to form: long strans of mycrofibrils
thousands of mycrofibrils form: 1 muscle cell
thousands of individual muscle cells grouped together form: the muscle
sliding filament mechanism: explains contractions ex) muscles don't actually "shorten", the myosin slides over actin proteins, creating "bulge" during contraction
agonist muscle: movement produced by moving ex) in bicep curl, agonist= bicep brachii
antagonist muscle: opposing movement producing muscle ex) bicep curl, antagonist= tricep brachii (reciprocal inhibition telling the tri to let the bicep work)
stabilizers/fixators: supporting joint or restricting a movement muscle ex)bicep curl, wrist & should joint(must be kept neutral & stable during exercise to benefit/not get hurt) ex) isometric
synergists: assisting in a similar muscle movement, muscles that produce similar motion ex)bicep curl, biceps brachii=synergist
agonist, antagonist, stabilizers/fixators work together as the: synergist
motor unit is = to: 1 neuron & all attached muscle fibers [1-3000 fibers (cells) for 1 nerve] ex)medial gastro. (if theres 1 000 000 fibers/cells @ approx. 3000 fibers/nerves, there are 33 motor units)
1 neuron goes from the spinal cord and: splits off up to 3000 times for muscle fibers
each motor unit is made up of all: slow twitch fibers
"all-or-nothing" response: someone telling you to work your "inner" or "outer" pecs is false because the pecs will contract as a whole
min. time component of FITTE for VO2Max =: 20 mins. for noticed improvements
body controls motor unit force by: depending on the activity, the body automatically chooses slow or fast twitch fibers
neural learning: trained & untrained (nerve remembers the "phone number" of muscle fibers)
neural recruitment causes: beginners to rapidly increase muscle in the first 2-4 weeks (not hypertrophy)
during a muscle contraction actin/myosin can do three things: 1. move closer together (concentric contraction) 2. move farther apart (ecentric contraction) 3. stay in the same position (isometric contraction)
muscle expresses strength by (3 things): 1. # of fibers or motor units recruited 2. # of fibers contracting simultaneously
concentric contraction: 1. positive, against gravity (always muscle's intention) 2. eccentric: negative, with or into gravity (imposed on muscle); results in DOMS
DOMS: delayed onset muscle soreness; 2 or 3 days of soreness (not from lactic acid , from good type of muscle tissue)
muscle for shoulder abduction: middle deltoid
muscle used for elbow extension: tricep
muscle used for shoulder adduction: latissimus dorsi
muscle used for elbow flexion: bicep brachii
Created by: orr-t