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Chem Chap 4

Number of element on per. table 112
Number of naturally occurring elements 88
(1) Chemical discoveries of 18th Cent Most natural materials are mixtures of pure substances
(2) Chemical discoveries of 18th Cent Pure substances are either elements or combos of elements
(3) Chemical discoveries of 18th Cent Law of constant composition
What is the law of constant composition? Compounds will always have the same composition/amounts regardless of where elements came from
(1) Dalton's Atomic Theory Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms
(2) Dalton's Atomic Theory The atoms of a given element are different than those of any other element
(3) Dalton's Atomic Theory Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds
(4) Dalton's Atomic Theory Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes
Atomic model w/ mostly positive - electrons spread throughout to counter positive Plum Pudding
Created Plum Pudding Atomic Model Lord Kelvin
Rutherford knew plum pudding model was false because... Large deflections of alpha particles - concentrated positive charge that would repel alpha particles
Nuclear Atom An atom with dense center of positive charge (nucleus) around which tiny electrons moved in a space that was otherwise empty. Concluded nucleus must be positive charge to balance electrons.
Isotopes Atoms with same number of protons, but different number of neutrons
Atomic Number Number of protons in the nucleus
Mass Number Protons + Neutrons
Columns on per. table Groups
Rows on per. table periods
Group 1 on per. table alkali metals
Group 2 alkaline earth metals/transition metals
Group 7 halogens
Group 8 Noble Gases
(1) Physical properties of metals Efficient conductors of electricity
(2) Physical properties of metals Malleability
(3) Physical properties of metals Ductility
(4) Physical properties of metals Lustrous
Upper right corner of per. table nonmetals
Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te metalloids
Non-reactive elements Noble Gases
diatomic molecules made up of two atoms
Different forms of a given element alatropes
Elements react more violently as you go ____ down
Ion Charged particle
Pos. Ion Cation
Neg. Ion Anion
Created by: vojoker