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Quarter 1

Anatomy Midterm

Anatomy Study of the structure of the Body
Physiology study of the function of the body
Gross anatomy study of the body with the naked eye
microscopic anatomy requires the use of a microscope
cytology study of cells
histology study of tissues
systematic all organs with related functions studied together
regional all structures in a single region are studied regardless of function
pathological deal with the structure changes in cells, tissues, and organs, caused by disease
topographical study of shapes and marking called landmarks on the surface of the body
superior toward the head or upper part of the structure
inferior away from the head end or towards the lower part of the structure
anterior toward or at the front of the body
posterior toward or at the back end of the body
medial toward or at the midline of the body, on the inner side
lateral away from the midline, outer sides of the body
intermediate between a more medial and lateral structure
proximal closer to the origin of the body part
distal further from the origin of the body part
superficial surface of the body
deep internal, away from the surface
frontal divides the body into anterior and posterior sides
transverse horizontally divides the body into superior and inferior parts
sagittal divides the body into right and left parts vertically
midsagittal vertically right down the middle (median)
axial region head, neck, and trunk
trunk thorax, abdomen, pelvic
ventral body cavity thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity peritoneal cavity
thoracic cavity pleural cavity (lungs) mediastinum (heart) pericardial (surrounds the heart)
abdominopelvic cavity abdominal (digestive organs) pelvic (bladder reproductive organs) peritoneal cavity (
dorsal body cavity where spinal column and skull are located
cranial brain
vertebral spinal chord
pericardial cavity cavity that surrounds the heart
pleural cavity cavity that surrounds the lung
peritoneal cavity surrounds organs in the abdominalpelvic region
parietal serosa outer wall of the cavity (parietal pluerae) (parietal pericardium) (parietal peritoneum)
visceral serosa serous membrane located directly on the visceral organ
serous fluid protective fluid used for lubrication between visceral and parietal serosa
9 abdominal regions (right left hypochondriac) epigastric (right and left lumbar) umbilical (right and left illiac) hypogastric
4 abdominal quadrants upper left and right lower left and right
what divides the two ventral cavities diaphragm
two parts of the thoracic cavity mediastinum (contains pericardium) and pleura
outer wall of a serous cavity parietal serosa
inner wall of a serous cavity visceral serosa
biological catalysts enzymes
mechanism by which particles enter a cell endocytosis
primary nonspecific defense mechanism of the host, an example of endocytosis phagocytosis
mechanism that moves substances out of the cell exocytosis
site of protein synthesis ribosomes
network within the cytoplasm endoplasmic reticulum
cell membrane factory rough ER
stores ionic calcium in the cell rough ER
site of lipid metabolism in the cell smooth ER
post office of the cell golgi apparatus
powerhouse of the cell mitochondria
membrane-walled sacs that contain digestive enzymes lysosomes
cell skeleton cytoskeleton
control center of the cell nucleus
tissue responsible for covering and lining epithelial tissue
tissue responsible for support connective tissue
tissue responsible for movement muscle tissue
tissue responsible for control/communication nervous tissue
one layer of cells in epithelial tissue simple
more than one layer of cells in epithelial tissue stratified
cells wider than tall, plate-like squamous
cells as wide as they are tall cuboidal
cells that are taller than they are wide columnar
ducts that carry products to an epithelial surface or into a body cavity exocrine gland
ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the blood stream endocrine gland
organ that functions for both exocrine and endocrine pancreas
most diverse and abundant tissue connective tissue
4 types of connective tissue connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood
three types of membranes that combine epithelial and connective tissue 1) cutaneous membrane, 2) mucous membrane, 3) serous membrane
striated and voluntary muscle tissue skeletal muscle
striated and involuntary muscle tissue cardiac muscle
non-striated and involuntary muscle tissue smooth muscle
two layers of skin epidermis, dermis
layer of skin classified as stratified squamous epithelial tissue epidermis
layer of skin classified as connective tissue dermis
lies deep to the skin and is not considered part of the skin hypodermis
most abundant cell type in the epidermis, produces keratin keratinocytes
epidermal cell type which produces a dark skin pigment melanocytes
epidermal cell type associated with a sensory nerve ending, receptor for touch merkel cells
epidermal cell type that uses endocytosis to take up antigens, immune system langerhans cells
superficial layer of the dermis papillary layer
papillary layer of dermis composed of ______ connective tissue areolar
deep layer of the dermis reticular layer
reticular layer of dermis composed of _______ connective tissue dense irregular
is dermis vascularized? yes
two names for hypodermis superficial fascia, subcutaneous layer
two tissue types in hypodermis areolar and adipose connective tissue
flexible strand of dead hard keratin hair
two parts of a hair root, shaft
sebaceous glands occur everywhere on the body except palms and soles
sebaceous glands secrete sebum
another name for sweat gland sudoriferous gland
true sweat is 99% water, some NaCl and metabolic wastes
sweat gland that produces true sweat eccrine gland
larger of the sweat glands, produce sweat with fatty substances and proteins apocrine gland
scale-like modification of epidermis, made of hard keratin nails
Appendicular region 4 limbs
cervical neck
acromial point of shoulder
antecubital front of elbow
antibrachial forearm
pollex thumb
patellar front of knee
tarsal ankle
orbital eye
buccal cheek
mental chin
sternal breastbone
thoracic chest
umbilical naval
inguinal groin
femoral thigh
hallux big toe
olecranal back of elbow
sacral between hips
popliteal heel
plantar sole of foot
three organs found in mediastinum heart, trachea, esophagus
Created by: dmorris1130