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8Sci-Chapter 3

Exploring the Oceans

What are the most abundant elements in ocean water? sodium and chlorine
Where is the world's longest mountain chain located? the ocean floor
How are regions of the continental margin divided? by depth and slope
Where do benthos live? on or in the ocean floor
How many ecological zones make up the benthic environment? 5
What three non-living resources can be harvested from the ocean? minerals, water and energy
What is salinity? the measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
What does the time of year and latitude affect? ocean's surface temperatures
What is the largest ocean? Pacific
What is the ocean that is about half the volume of the Pacific Ocean and the 2nd largest ocean? Atlantic
What is the third-largest ocean? Indian
What is the ocean whose surface is partly covered by ice and is the smallest ocean? Artic
What percentage of the Earth's surface is covered with water? 71%
What is the second, cooler layer of ocean water? thermocline
What is the warm, top layer of ocean water? surface zone
What is the bottom, coolest layer of ocean water? deep zone
What can affect the amount of gas that dissolves in water? temperature
What is precipitation? droplets fall back to the Earth's surface
What is evaporation? liquid water heated by the sun and rises as a gas into the atmosphere
What is condensation? water vapor cooled and turned to liquid water on dust particles
What three components make up Earth's surface? water, land, and clouds (air)
What is the water cycle? the movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean
What is the most important function of the ocean? it absorbs and holds energy from sunlight
What does SONAR stand for? sound navigation and ranging
What is sonar technology based on? echo-ranging behavior of bats
What does SEASAT measure? the direction and speed of ocean currents
What does GEOSAT measure? changes in the height of ocean surface
How fast does sound travel in water? 1,500 miles per second
Where does the continental shelf begin? it begins at the shoreline
Where is the continental slope? it slopes from the continental shelf to the ocean floor
Where is the continental rise? it forms the base of the continental slope
If the ocean were a giant swimming pool, what would be considered the shallow end? the continental margin
What are mountain chains formed by magma called? mid-ocean ridges
What are mountains on the ocean floor that can turn into volcanic islands called? seamounts
What is formed when one oceanic plate is forced underneath another plate? ocean trench
What three main groups are micro-organisms divided into? plankton, nekton & benthos
What is a food chain? a diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another
What is a food web? a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms
What are the two main food webs on Earth? Aquatic and Terrestrial
What is plankton? organisms that drift freely near the ocean surface
What is example of plankton? plant-like and animal-like microscopic life
What is nekton? free-swimming organisms
What is an example of nekton? fish, dolphins and sea lions
What are benthos? organisms that live on or in the ocean floor
What is an example of benthos? crabs, worms and clams
Where is the benthic zone? away from the shore where the water becomes deeper
Where is the intertidal zone? where the ocean meets the land
Where is the oceanic zone? where the sea floor drops sharply
What are reefs made up of? corals and small animals
What are marine ecosystems located along the coast of tropical areas called? mangrove swamps
Where is the Sargasso Sea found? in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
What marine ecosystem can penguins and Beluga whales be found in? polar ice
What is the largest group of marine organisms taken from the ocean? fish
What is seaweed? a type of alga
What type of resources are oil and natural gas? nonrenewable
What is desalination? a process of removing salt from ocean water
What is the greatest advantage of using renewable resources? it can be replenished, in time, after being used
Where does nonpoint-source pollution come from? many sources
Where does point-source pollution come from? a specific source
What is sludge? the solid part of waste matter
Why is plastic trash harmful to marine animals? animals get tangled in plastic trash and can strangle
How are oil tankers being built to prevent oil spills? they have two hulls
What year was the Clean Water Act passed? 1972
What is the broad, flat part of the deep-ocean basin? abyssal plain
What is overfishing? taking more fish than can be naturally replaced
How is sonar used? sound pulses leave the ship, hit the ocean floor and bounce back to the ship
What is wave energy an example of? a clean, renewable resource
What do engineers drill in the ocean floor for? oil & natural gas
What technologies do scientists use to study the ocean floor? sonar & satellite
What zone are coral reefs found in? neritic zone
Where is an ocean trench found? it run parallel to a chain of volcanic islands
Where is the neritic zone? its where the water becomes deeper and the ocean floor slopes downward
Created by: ndmsteach