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Module 4 Anatomy

Study Guide for Module 4 Anatomy

Define Osteoblast A bone-forming cell
Define Osteocyte A mature bone cell surrounded by bone matrix
Define Osteoclast A large, multi-nucleated cell that breaks down bone
Define Hematoma A localized mass of blood that is confined to an organ or some defineable space
Define Callus A mass of tissue that connects the ends of a broken bone
Define Anatomical Position The position acquired when one stands erect with the feet facing forward, the upper limbs hanging at the sides, and the palms facing forward with the thumbs to the outside
What are the two principal agents in bone matrix, and how do they affect the tissue properties? Collagen - gives the bone flexibility and tensile strength Hydoxyapitite - gives the bone hardness and compressive strength
What kind of bone cell would be surrounded by bone matrix? An osteocyte (mature bone cell)
What kind of bone cell has more than one nucleus? An osteoclast (breaks down bone)
What kind of bone tissue has no osteons? Cancellous bone tissue
What kind of tissue contains trabeculae? What is found in the spaces between? trabeculae? Cancellous tissue contains trabeculae. Blood vessels and red bone marrow can be found in the spaces between.
What is the name for layers of tissue that form an osteon? What is the name for layers of tissue between osteons? Layers of tissue that form an osteon are called "Concentric Lamellae." Layers of tissue in between osteons are called "Interstitial Lamellae."
What are caniculi? Extensions from the outside of the cell.
What are the six reasons bone is remodeled? 1. Bone is remodeled when it grows 2. Bone needs to increase or decrease in mass as needed 3. Bones constantly ossify and break down 4. Bones need to be reshaped 5. Bones need to be repaired 6. Bone is remodeled to replace worn collagen
Why does the epiphyseal plate need to get thicker as the bone grows? Because cartilage grows just at the right speed, allowing the bone to grow without the epiphyseal plate getting thicker.
Which side of the epiphyseal plate has tissue that ossifies? It ossifies on the diaphysis, the inner side.
If a bone has no epiphyseal plates, can it still grow? Yes, but only appositionally (in width)
What is appositional bone growth? When a bone grows in diameter.
Process of bone repair (a) A hemotoma forms (b) The callus forms (c) The callus is ossified (d) The external callus is removed and the bone is remodeled as needed
What is the purpose of the external callus? What is the purpose of the internal callus? The external callus stabilizes the bone while it is being healed The internal callus forms the new bone tissue
What gland secretes calcitonin? What gland secretes PTH? The thyroid gland secretes calcitonin. The parathyroid gland secretes PTH.
If someone has a large increase of calcitonin levels in the body, what happens to the person's blood calcium level? The person's blood calcium level is too high.
What is the effect of calcitonin? What is the effect of PTH? Calcitonin decreases osteoclast activity and lowers the amount of blood calcium. PTH stimulates osteoclast activity, and increases the amount of blood calcium.
What gland secretes HGH, and what effect does it have? HGH is secreted by the pituitary gland. If it is too low, it causes dwarfism. If it is too high, it causes giantism.
What effect do sex hormones have on bone growth? They stimulate osteoblast activity, causing rapid bone growth. At the same time they cause the epiphyseal plates to ossify, which stops growth.
What are the three major types of joints in the body, and which one is associated with most of the movement in the body? Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial. Synovial joints are used most.
Know the parts of the synovial joint. ...Just know them.
What is the purpose of articular cartilage? Helps bones to move inside joints without damage.
What is the purpose of synovial fluid? It lubricates the joint.
What produces synovial fluid? Synovial membrane. The joint actually produces its own lubrication.
List the six major types of synovial joints in order of range of motion. Ball and socket, ellipsoid, pivot, saddle, hinge, plane
Name the following kinds of motion: Okie dokie
Ballet dancer stands on her toes Plantar flexion
Push-ups Extension
On one foot, twirl other leg in circles Circumduction
Palms up to palms down Pronation
Arms from a person's side to horizontal position Abduction
Created by: Tripman222