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A&P Final

What are the planes that divide the body? Sagittal plane , dorsal plane, mid sagittal , transverse
What are the 4 tissue types? Epithelia, nervous, connetive, muscle
What are the 3 muscle types smooth, skeletal, cardiac
What is the maintance of the body's equilibrium called? Homeostasis
What are the 4 primary elements and their chemical number? Carbon : (C)-6 * Hydrogen : (H)- 1 *Oxygen : (O)-8 *Nitrogen : (N)- 7
What are the 3 parts of an atom? Proton, neutron, electron
How many electrons can be in each shell? 2/8/18
Abbreviate Potassium, Sodium and magnesium. k=potassium *Na = sodium *Mg=magnesium
What are the 3 types of bonds? covalent, Ionic, hydrogen
What are the three types of reactions and what is the cost for the reaction? Synthesis reaction=energy , *decomposition reaction = energy,* exchange reaction = no energy)
What is the energy required for to happen? Activaton energy
Define Ions. a charge atom or molecule
Def Cation. Positively charged ion
Def Anion: Negatively charged ion
Def Isotope: Same number of protons and different number of neutrons
Define atom: smallest unit of element
What is a molecule? smallest unit of a compound that retain the properties of that compound
What is a catalyst? induces chemical reaction
What are the 4 base pairs of DNA? Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thyamine,
What are the 4 base pairs of RNA? Adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil
what are the 3 types of cartilage? Hyalin, Elastic and fibrocartilage
Where is hyaline cartilage found? As Articular cartilage at the ends of bones, in joints and connects ribs to sternum
Where is Elastic cartilage found? epiglottis and the pinnae
Where is fibrocartilage found? between the vertebrae, bones of the pelvic girdle and knee joint
what are the 3 different types of fibers in the tissue? elastic, collagenous, reticular
what type of cell remodels bone? Osteoclast
What type of cells form bone? Osteoblasts
What are the three types of joints? *Fibrous:immovable(skull bone) *cartilaginous: slightly movable (disks between the vertibrae) *synovial: freely movable(shoulder joint)
How are bones classified? Long, short, flat and irregular
Muscle attachment site that is movable? Insertion
Muscle attachment site that is stable? Origin
Define Prime mover: Agonist
Define antagonist: Against movement
What is a synergist? A muscle that contracts with another at the same time.
What type of muscle stabilizes joints? Fixator
What are the phases of the ECG? *P-wave (Atrial Contraction ) * QRS complex (Ventricular contraction) *T wave (ventricular repolarization)
What are the hormones associated with fight or flight? Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
What are the structures of the muscle cell? *I-Band actin/ thin ) *A –band (myosin/ thick) *Z-band (vertical band)
What is the PNS composed of? Peripheral nervous system/ everything except the brain and spinal cord
What is the CNS composed of? Central nervous system/ Brain and spinal
What are the various parts of the brain? cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem.
What part of the brain is for higher intelligence and is also the largest component? cerebrum
What part of the brain allows for coordination and balance? Is also the second largest component Cerebellum
What is the nervous system passage between the primitive brain stem and the cerebrum Diencephalon
What is the connection between the brain stem and the spinal cord?
What are the enzymes that recycle neurotransmitters? MOA, COMT, Acetylcholinestrase
What hormones are produced in the reproductive system and where they are produced? Teststerone= testis * estrogen/progesterone = ovaries
What are the male and female gonads? Ovaries and testes
What are the components of the nephrons? Glomerulus, bowmans capsule, afferent /efferent arterioles, proximal convoluted tubules, distal convoluted tubules, loop of henle , collecting ducts
What are the fat soluble vitamins? ADEK
Numerical dental formula *100 U/R *200 L/R *300 L/L *400 U/L
Parietal cells produce what in the stomach? Hydrochloric acid
Chief cell produce what in the stomach? pepsinogen
Mucous cells produce what in the stomach? mucus
G-cells produce what in the stomach? Gastrin
Alpha cells produce what in the pancreas? glucagon
Gas exchange occurs where? in the alveoli
What are the 5 primary structures of the respiratory tract? Nares , nasal passage, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
What are the 4 primary structures of the lower respiratory tract? Bronchi, bronchioles, aveolar ducts, alveoli
What are the 4 portions of the neuron? soma, dendrites, axon, axon terminals
What are the main components of the urinary system? 2 Kidneys , 2 ureters , 1 bladder and 1 urethra
What is the k-9 dental formula? I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M2/3
What is the feline dental formula? I3/3 C1/1 P2/3 M1/1
What is the bovine dental formula? I0/3 C0/1 P3/3 M3/3
What is the puppy dental formula? i3/3 c 1/1 p3/3
The spinal vertebrae are broken into what sections? Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
The body's skeleton is broken into what 2 sections? Appendicular (appendages) Axial (head and trunk)
What is the vertebral formula of the cat/dog? 7-13-7-3
What is the vertebral formula of a horse? 7-18-6-5
What is the vertebral formula of a cow? 7-13-6-5
What are the 3 structures of the meninges? *Dura mater: outermost(fibrous) *Arachnoid: spiderweb (delicate) *Pia mater (thin)
What are the 3 structures of the brain stem? medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
What are the stages of the Estrous cycle? Proestrus, Estrus, Metestrus, Diestrus, Anestrus
What causes ovulation? Surge in LH
What is the gestation period of the cat/dog? 2 months
What is the gestation of the horse? 11 months
What is the gestation of the cow? 9 months
What are the types of reflexes? Stretch, withdrawl, crossed extensor
What are the sections of the heart and main vein/artery? R/atrium, R/ventricle L /Atrium L/Ventricle Aorta, Cranial/ caudal vena cava
What are the layers of the heart? Outside- in Pericardium, myocardium, endocardium
Spermatozoa are produced in the______ through a process called______? Seminiferous tubules : spermatogenesis
Ova are produced in the ___through a process called___ ? ovary follicles : oogenesis
Each spermatocyte equals how many sperm? 4
Each oocyte equals how many ova? 1
What are the 2 main body cavities? Dorsal and ventral cavities
Organs are covered by a membrane called? Visceral layer
The thoracic cavity is lined with a membrane called? Parietal layer
Most common cartilage found in the body: Hyaline cartilage
What is the hardest substance in the body? Enamel
What is the largest organ in the body? Skin
What are the 7 minor elements? * Calcium: Ca * Phosporus: P * Potassium: K * Sulfur : S * Sodium: Na * Chlorine: Cl * Magnesium:Mg
What are the 4 major elements? *Oxygen:O *Carbon:C *Hydrogen: H *Nitrogen:N
Def Mitosis: Exact cell replication
What is the process of mitosis? PMAT *Prophase (strands condense ) *Metaphase (lines up in the middle) * Anaphase (end to end) * Telephase (final stage)
What heart valves are located on the left side? (PAM) Pulmonary valve, aortic valve, mitral valve (Most common side for heart failure)
What heart valve is located on the right side? Tricuspid ( Where HW are found)
What are the 6 organelles discussed in class? Mitochondia, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth/rough ER), Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, peroxisomes
_______ is the site of Adenosine triphosphate production in the cell. Mitochindria
______ transports and stores material in the cell. smooth and rough ER
______ Is the site of protein synthesis in the cell. Ribosomes
________ Is the responsible for packaging and shipping in the cell. Golgi apparatus
______ digests absorbed material in the cell. lysosomes
______ detoxifies and removes free radicals in the cell. peroxisomes
What are the 2 layers of the bone? Compact bone :dense outer Cancellous: spongy inner periosteum: covers the outside Endosteum : Lines the inside
Describe the process of ovulation. -FSH stimulates the ovarian follicle, the follicle then ruptures and discharges an ovum
Describe the process of DNA replication. -The DNA unwraps, helicase seperates portions of the DNA, polymerase adds on the complimentary nucleotides, and ligase zips the strand back up
What are the 4 primary membranes discussed in class? Primary membranes include: Mucous (Lubrication), Serous (Absorbtion), Cutaneous (Keratinized; Skin), and Synovial (Lines joint cavities)
Created by: brit_2112