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wcc muscle


Muscle basic tissue of the body; 40-50% of body weight; main function to contract
tissue types epithelium, connective, nervous, muscle
muscle fibers muscle cells; arranged in bundles surounded by fibrous connective tissue
muscle fiber cells bundels of myofibrils
muscle cell cytoplasm sarcoplasm
cell membrane sarcolemma
synaptic cleft space between the motor neuron and muscle fiber
synaptic junction place where a motor neuron contacts a muscle fiber
ACETYLCHOLINE released by the neuron to initiate muscular contraction
ACETYLCHLINE inactivated Acetylcholinesterase
Tendon connetive tissue that attaches muscle to bone
Aponeroses broad flat tendon that attaches muscle to muscle; ex: Linea Alba or White line down th abdomen
Belly wide fleshy part of the muscle
origin least movable attachment
Insertion most movable attachment
Flexor decreases the angle of the joint; biceps flex the elbow
extensor increases the angle of a join; triceps extend the elbow
abductor moves limb away from the median plane
adductor moves limb toward the median plane
agonist prime movers; responsible for prod desired action
antagonist oppose desired action
synergist works with angonist to produce desired action
sphincters muscles surrounding an opening
flexion bending the joint resulting in decrease in angle
extension straightening at a joing resuting in increase in angle
abduction appendage moves away from midline
adduction appendage moves towards the midline
supination turn palm upward
pronation turn palm downward
rotation moving a structure about a point
skeletal muscle striated; voluntary (somatic nerves); multinucleated
skeletal muscle consists of sarcolemmma, numerous nuclei; lots of myofibrils; sarcoplasmic reticulim; tranasvers tubules; sarcoplasm
sarcolemma (blank)
myofibrils (blank)
sarcoplasmic reticulum endopaslmic reticulum of muscle tissue
transverse tubules transmit electricl impulse from sarcolemma into interior of muscle; initiate contraction
sarcoplasm (blank)
microfilament bands A-Band; contain myosin, thick; I-band contains actin
Myosin (blank)
Actin (blank)
contraction overlapping A&I bands; slide together; myofibrils shorten and fibers contract
Calcium diffuses throught the tubules into the interior of the cell to initiate contraction; Muscle fibers will contract as long as calcium is in excess!!
Relaxation ATP; release calcium back to tubules; relax when actin and myosin seperate
Rigor mortis No ATP to force calcium out; myosin and actin remain locked; all muscles stiffen
tetany continuous muscle contraction
eclampsia caused by calcium loss
All or None principal ease striated muscle fiber cell must be stimulated directly; whole fiber then contracts to maximum
Cutaneious muscles cutaneious trunci
head and neck trapezius, masster, brachiocephalicus
abdominal abdomianl obliques, rectus abdominus
Thoracic limb latissiums dorsi, deltoid, triceps, biceps, pectorals
pelvic limb semimembranosus, semitendinosus, quadriceps, gastrocnemius
spinal lumbar, gluteal
respirator internal & external intercostals, diaphragm
Smooth muscle involuntary; non-striated; centralized singel nucleus; spiindle-shaped
Plasticity or Elasticity ability to adjust to being stretched w/out increasing tension (uterus, stomach, intestines, bladder
Type of Smooth multi-unit, 1%, direct nerve stimulation required, found in blood vessels, iris, nictitating memebrane and erector pili muscles; visceral, 99%, syncytium, impulses travel from cell to cell, found in GI, respiratory and urogenital
pacemaker cells throughout the visceral smooth muscle
stiumli mechanical, chemical, hormonal
ephaptic conduction linked electrically, but independing chemically; domino effect, one stiumulted, transfer to a ll surrounding fibers
Autonomic Nervous Sys smooth muscle
cardiac muscle involuntary; striated, found only in heart; intercalated discs
intercalated discs V; allow impulses to move from one cell to another
Purkinje fibers rapid impulse from atria to the ventricles
low calcium tetany and convulsions
low potassium weakness and diarrhea
low selenium and V E muscular degeneration; white muscle disease; selenium required in large animals
low magnesium myopathy; general term referring to any skeletal muscle disease or neuromuscular disorder.
Hypertrophy increase in size; cardiac muscle, excessive work, high altitiudes
atrophy decrease in size; due to loss of nerve supply of lack ofuse
Muscle trauma CPK; creatine phosphokinase, An enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues of vertebrates that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and creatine.indicates muscle damage; ex: inflammation or after and IM injection
Eosiniophilic Myositis Germ Shep; immune mediated; swelling of facial muscles, atrophy in chronic form, difficult to open mouth; > in WC ct, muscle biopsy, corticosteriods and antibiotics
organophophate poisoning insecticides, inhibits acetylcholinestrerase cuasing ACh buildup; muscle spasms and asphyxiation, muscle tetany/spasm; SLUD, Miosis of pupils and Nystagmus
SLUD excessive salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation
Miosis of pupils An enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues of vertebrates that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and creatine.
Nystagmus An enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues of vertebrates that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and creatine.
Organophospate poisn; antidotes atropine sulfate; 2-PAM (protopam)
Organophospate poisn; prevention use products as labeled, avoid use of insecticides
White Muscle Disease calves, pigs, lambs, vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency; stiff movement with arched back; Dx - history, signs, necropsy, blood chemistry
White Muscle Disease Tx sodium, selenite and V/E by injection
Exertional Rhabdomyolysis horses, occ canines; buildup of lactic acid (forced exercise after feed); fever profuse sweating, trembling, rapid pulse, weakness in hindlimbs, stiff gaite myoglobinuria
Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Dx; Tx history, signs elevated CK and AST; Rest fluids, laxatives, anitinflammatories, sedation, massage, diet
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, such as aspirin or ibuprofen.
NSAID purpose inhibits enzyme cyclooxygenase (cox); analgesia, anti-pyretic
NSAID side effects GI ulceration, bleeding tendencies, CATS
NSAID's Salicylates (aspirin), Pyrazolone derivatives, Carprofen (rimadyl), etodolac (etogesic), selective COX enzyme inhibitors
opioid analgesics moderate to severe pain, bind to receiptors blocking transmission of pain impulses
Opioid classes agaonist (morphine derivatives) mixed agonist/antagonist
Agonist effects can be reversed, Naloxone, Nallorphine, Naltrexone
Pure Agonists Morphine derivatives (morphine, oxymorphone, meperidine, doceine, fentanyle; class II
Pure agonists side eff respiratory depression, sedation and vomiting, panting and sensitivty to noise, Horses and cats have bad reactions; all effects can be reversed with an antagonist
Mixed angonist/antagonist synthetics; butorphanel (torbugesic) and buprenorphine (buprenex), should not be given with pure agonists, less severe side-effects
Muscle relaxants acute inflammatory cond, methocarbamol (robaxin), intervertebral disks disease, sprains, azoturia
corticosterioids Sterioids, glucocorticoids; Tx inflamation, ruritus, Immune mediated cond, manage not cure; adrenal gland prod similar compounds, cortisol
Corticosteriods eff inhibition of the prostaglandin, stabalization of cell memb to prevent reelase of harmful enzymes, inhibition of antibody formation
corticosteriods side effects inhibition of healing, masking signs of disease, P/P, muscle wasting, polyphagia, suppresion of normal cortisol function, gastric ulceration and liver damage
Corticosterioids brands dexamethasone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, triamcinolone, betamethosone, solu-medrol
Created by: wccvettech