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integumentary syst.

parts of integumentary system

Protection – Chemical & Biological • Low pH of skin secretions (acid mantle) • Bactericidal substances in sebum • Human defensin- natural antibiotic produced by skin cells • Melanin to protect against UV damage • Macrophages & Langerhans’ cells functions of integumentary system
Mechanical • Keratinized cells to form a barrier • Glycolipids make a waterproof barrier functions of integumentary system
Body Temperature Regulation – Evaporation of sweat cools the body – Constriction of dermal blood vessels causes skin to drop in temperature slowing passive heat loss to the environment functions of integumentary system
Sensation – Meissner’s corpuscles & Merkel discs – a caress – Pacinian receptors – deep pressure receptors functions of integumentary system
Metabolic Functions – Vitamin D production – Activation of steroid hormones functions of integumentary system
Blood Reservoir function of integumentary system
Excretion function of integumentary system
The skin has two distinct regions, what are they? The epidermis and dermis.
– composed of epithelial cells (avascular) epidermis
– fibrous connective tissue dermis
-composed of adipose and areolar connective tissue, is below the dermis. -Functions as a shock absorber & insulator. -Where one gains weight. hypodermis
Characteristics - stratified squamous epithelia - four cell types(keratinocytes, meloninocytes, langerhans' cells, and merkel cells. characteristics of epidermis
-produces keratin to give epidermis protective properties keratinocytes
– spider shaped cells, produce melanin to protect nucleus from UV damage melanin collects in melanosomes melanocytes
– star-shaped cells, arise from bone marrow to help activate the immune system aka: epidermal dendritic cells langerhans' cells
– spikey hemisphere, functions with a disc like sensory nerve ending to function as a sensory receptor merkel cells
Characteristics four to five layers (deep to superficial) : stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, & stratum corneum. epidermis characteristics
aka: stratum geminativum – rapid cell division stratum basale
web-like system of intermediate filaments statum spinosum
accumulates keratohyaline granules to help with keratin production and lamellated granules to help slow water loss stratum granulosum
(absent in thin skin) - rows of clear, flat dead keratinocytes stratum lucidum
keratin found in this layer; provides protection and a waterproof boundary; 3⁄4 of the skin is made from this layer stratum corneum
Layers of the skin in order. Stratum Corneum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Spinosum, & Stratum Basale.
Characteristics -strong, flexible connective tissue; “your hide” -cell types include: fibroblasts, WBC, & macrophages -two layers: papillary layer and reticular layer characteristics of dermis
Papillary Layer -collagen fibers provide strength & resiliency -elastic fibers allow stretching -dermal papillae indent the superior surface into the epidermis -Meissner’s corpuscles-touch receptors characteristics of dermis
Reticular Layer -dense irregular connective tissue -Pacinian corpuscles- pressure receptors characteristics of dermis
Characteristics -lies deep to the dermis -consists of adipose & areolar connective tissue -anchors skin to underlying structures -energy storage characteristics of hypodermis
Three pigments contribute to skin color, what are they? Melanin, carotene and hemoglobin
is produced in the skin. It ranges from yellow to reddish-brown to black. melanin
All people have the same number of melanocytes. Skin color is determined by the color of melanin produced, the amount produced and the retention rate. Black individuals produce more melanosomes than fair skinned individuals. characteristics of melanin& skin color
is yellow to orange. It accumulates in the hypodermis and the stratum corneum. It is found in carrots, sweet potatoes, broccoli, pumpkin, etc. Carotene
is found in the RBC. Fair skinned people have little melanin, so oxygenated hemoglobin is seen and gives a pink hue to the skin. hemoglobin
- Eccrine sweat glands - produces sweat, found throughout the skin surface - abundant on palms, soles of feet and forehead Sweat Glands or Sudorifierous Glands
- found in the axillary and groin areas - in addition to normal sweat components, contains fatty substances & protein - more viscous than sweat - when broken down by bacteria, it is responsible for body odor Apocrine sweat glands
(holocrine) - produce cerumen, earwax Ceruminous Glands
(merocrine) - specialized sweat gland that produces milk Mammary Glands
-(oil) - holocrine glands - found all over the body except palms & soles of feet - produce sebum - lubricates hair & skin; keeps hair & skin soft - seborrhea “cradle cap"– overactive sebaceous gland sebaceous glands
- composed of dead keratinized cells - two regions: the shaft & the root Hair
If the shaft is . . . -flat & ribbonlike, the hair is kinky -oval, the hair is silky and wavy -round, the hair is straight & may be coarse characteristics of the shaft of the hair
3 concentric layers of the hair shaft, what are they? medulla, cortex, & cuticle
- central core; large cells and air spaces medulla
- several layers of flattened cells cortex
- single layer of cells that overlap cuticle
it comes from the production of melanin at the base of the hair follicle. Root of the Hair Color
- deep end of the follicle Hair Bulb
- sensory nerve endings wrapped around the hair bulb Root Hair Plexus
- supplies nutrients Dermal Papilla
*Outer Sheath- connective tissue *Glassy Membrane- thickened basement membrane *Inner Sheath- epithelial tissue Wall of Hair Follicle
- active growing region of a hair Hair Matrix
– smooth muscle associated with a hair; allows the hair to stand on end; responsible for goose bumps arrector pili muscle
- scale-like modifications of the epidermis Nails
Types of white blood cells basophils, neurtophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts
– make histamines – Dilate blood vessels – Make blood vessel wall more permeable basophils
–phagocytic – Attack the wound Neutrophils
– very phagocytic – Cleans up the would depris Macrophages
–buildsnew dermis – Stratum basale layer fibroblasts
A – Asymmetry (symmetrical, asymmetrical) B – Border Irregularities (even edges, uneven edges) C – Color (one shade, two or more shades) D – Diameter (smaller than 6mm, larger than 6mm) skin cancer ABCD rule
3 types of burns, what are they? first, second, and third degree burns
- only epidermis is damaged First Degree
- blistering; epidermis and upper part of dermis is damaged second degree
- full thickness burns; involves the entire thickness of the skin; looks gray-white or cherry red to blackened third degree
Disease of the skin – Melanocytes do not produce enough (or any) melanin – Albino skin is translucent white and eyes are pink Albinism
Disease of the skin – Absence of melanocytes in patches (could be patch of white hair) – Wandering Vitilago – melanocytes start and stop working Vitilago
Created by: a.quimbaya1