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APUSH Unit 2

APUSH Unit 2 Test Review

QuestionAnswer
What were the general causes of the American Revolution? French & Indian War, denial of "rights as Englishmen", Enlightenment, commonwealth men/republicanism, mercantilism, George III, adolescent child vs. "mother country" (Intolerable Acts)
What did the colonists object to prior to the American Revolution? taxes that were direct and external
How did the French & Indian War contribute to the start of the American Revolution? British debt --> direct taxation, more land --> increased cost, Pontiac's Rebellion, social tensions, Proclamation of 1763 --> no settling past the Appalachians in order to protect the Indians --> prevented westward expansion
Explain actual vs. virtual representation. colonists believed that they were not being represented in Parliament and therefore is not under its control where as Parliament believes that any person living on British land is represented in Parliament
What were the writs of assistance? court order that said officials could search places for illegal and smuggled goods (without a warrant)
What were the admiralty courts? considered unfair, given jurisdiction over laws, no trial by jury, judges have the power
How did Locke's ideas lead up to the American Revolution? Two Treatises of Civil Government: contract theory of the state, "natural rights" of life liberty property, rights of revolution
What was deism? belief of many of the founding fathers that God created the universe but the world was governed by natural laws
Define republicanism. a rejection of monarchy and aristocracy in favor of a government representative of and responsible to the people
Describe Enlightenment ideas. all men created equal, given unalienable rights, life liberty and pursuit of happiness, right of people to abolish government that is destructive, safety and happiness, people have the duty of overthrowing the government under despotism
Describe republicanism ideas. government derives just powers from the consent of the governed, government based on the safety and happiness of the people, people throw off government not fit to rule, balance among power liberty and virtue, work for society as a whole, no individualism
How did the colonists benefit from mercantilism? expansion of fur trade and commercial agriculture, British army and navy at their disposal, trading partner with Britain after Revolution, ready availability of English credit, ease of acquiring land, rights of an Englishmen
How did King George III contribute to the American Revolution? took too active an interest in affairs of the colonies, DROPPED PITT AS PRIME MINISTER, jealous of his royal authority and resentful of colonial defiance --> Coercive Acts
What were the Navigation Acts? only taxed imports to colonies from outside the British Empire
How were the Navigation Acts enforced? admiralty courts & writs of assistance
What was the Sugar Act? taxed goods imported from the British Empire
What was the Stamp Act? raised revenue to support British crown/troops - used externally
What was the primary objection to the Stamp Act? tax was placed without the consent of their representatives --> repealed later
What did the Stamp Act Congress accomplish? establish ties among 9 colonies, petitions to the king, boycotts, Sons of Liberty
What was the Quartering Act? colonies must supply British troops with housing
What was the Declaratory Act? Parliament declared sovereignty over colonies in all cases
What were the Townshend Acts? tax on consumable goods --> BOYCOTTBOYCOTTBOYCOTT
What was the Tea Act and what resulted from it? Parliament gives East India Company right to sell tea (monopolizing) --> massive unemployment --> Boston Tea Party
What resulted from the Boston Tea Party? Intolerable Acts --> closed ports, restricts town meetings, troops quartered in Boston
What resulted from the Intolerable Acts? meeting of First Continental Congress
What did the FCC accomplish? Olive Branch Petition - refused
What was the Prohibitory Act? coerced Americans into submission, embargo on American goods
What was the most effective form of protest in the colonies? BOYCOTT
What were the American strengths? leadership, fighting for homes/freedom, conditioned to pioneer life to hardship, financial/military aid, accustomed to firearms, military experience, familiar ground, guerrilla warfare, 5 capitals
What were American weaknesses? Loyalists, no financial resources, reliant on foreign aid, shortage of supplies/ammunition, short-term enlistments, unaccustomed to military discipline, lacked strong navy
What were the British strengths? well-equipped/trained, professional military leadership, powerful navy, hired foreign troops, had financial/manufacturing means to support army, support of Loyalists
What were the British weaknesses? unaccustomed to wilderness, underestimated Americans, separation slowed arrival of reinforcements, hired soldiers had no interest, not totally devoted, Whigs sympathized
TIMELINE THE BATTLES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Lexington and Concord, Trenton and Princeton, Saratoga, Valley Forge, Northwest Territory, South, Yorktown
What was declared in the Treaty of Paris? American independence recognized --> trade --> unemployment, set borders for US, FL given back to Spain (no French), Britain agrees to abandon forts - doesn't follow through, US will not hinder payment of pre-war debts - not honored
Who supported the Articles of Confederation? Antifederalists
Who were the Antifederalists? Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, John Hancock
Who supported the Constitution? Federalists
Who were the Federalists? Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison (switched)
Who had the power under the Constitution? national government
What is the states' roles in the government? run the elections - 2 party system (always)
What was Great Britain's government classified as? Unitary - national government & the people
What did the antifederalists advocate for? Bill of Rights
What was the religious result of the American Revolution? birth of the idea of church and state - Virginia's Statute on Religious Freedom, end of established churches (congregationalists & Anglicans still hur)
What was women's status like after the Revolutionary War? changed little, birth of republican motherhood (teaching children republican ideals), Abigail Adams - precedent for future women's rights movement
What was the status of slavery like after the Revolutionary War? abolished in the North - MA was first led by John Woolman (Quakers), set aside until 1808
What were the social results of the Revolutionary War? end of primogeniture and entail
What was America's first form of government? Articles of Confederation
What was the Confederation based on? agrarian practices
What was the federal government based on? business
When was the Constitution established? 1789 (French Revolution)
Who were the 4 Enlightened philosophers? Rousseau, Hobbes, Paine, Locke
What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? no chief executive, required 9 of 13 states to approve laws, required all states to approve amendments, no power to levy/collect taxes, could only raise money by BORROWING or ASKING STATES, no power to enforce treaties/laws, no national court system
What was the greatest achievement of the Articles of Confederation? signed the Peace of Paris to end the Revolutionary War, Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (established policy for settling new lands and creating new states), established departments of Foreign Affairs, War Marine, and Treasury
How many houses were there under the Articles of Confederation and which was directly elected by voters? 2; House of Reps
What was the economic crisis of the 1780s? balance of trade problems - closes trade with West Indies --> flood of British imports and hard currency shortage, states print own paper money - inflation and no interstate commerce, trade wars, debt - war bonds that government can't pay --> speculators
What were the signs of crisis? Newburgh Conspiracy - army didn't get paid --> angry, Shay's Rebellion, Nationalists
What was the new land policy established in the Articles? Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance 1787
Who supported separation of church and state? Jefferson
What was the purpose of the Assembly at Philadelphia? revise the Articles of Confederation, Assumption of Debt (secret meetings), moving of capitol, set aside slavery
Who was at the Philadelphia? Founding Fathers - Washington, Franklin, Hamilton, Madison
How was representation in Congress settled? Great Compromise (bicameral Congress, decentralization of power) - Roger Sherman: Virginia Plan (House of Reps) and New Jersey Plan (Senate)
How was slavery settled at the Assembly? 3/5 Compromise, abolished in the North
How was commerce compromised at the Assembly? no tax on exports - Congress in charge
Who makes up the two parties? Federalists & Antifederalists
How is the House elected? by the people according to population
How long is the term for the House? 2 years
How long is the term for the Senate? 6 years
How is the Senate elected? by state legislatures
Who makes up Congress and what is their role? House and Senate; make laws
What is the House responsible for? beginning the tax bills
What is the Senate responsible for? power to confirm treaties & presidential apointees
What are the powers of Congress? tax/spend money, regulate foreign/interstate commerce, declare war, raise an army
How does a bill become a law? passed by both houses and signed by president
What is the job of the executive branch? enforce laws
How is the President elected? elected by an electoral college chosen by state legislatures
What are the powers of the president? veto/sign bills, commander-in-chief of armed forces, appoint Justices
What is the job of the judicial branch? interpret laws
Who makes up the Supreme Court? 9 justices
What is the length of a term for a Justice? life
How are the Justices chosen? appointed by the president and approved by the Senate
What are the powers of the Supreme Court? interpret Constitution/federal/state laws, try cases involving federal crimes
What is federalism? power shared among national, state, and local governments
What is federal supremacy? federal law is supreme over state law
Explain checks and balances. president has power to veto bills and appoint Justices, legislature has power to override veto, impeach the president, and confirms appointment of Supreme Court, Supreme Court has the power to declare actions of the president/laws unconstitutional
How can Congress override a veto? 2/3 vote of both houses
What was the main way the Americans financed the Revolutionary War? obtaining loans and grants from the French and Dutch
cried out before the Virginia Assembly, "Give me liberty or give me death!" Patrick Henry
at the Philadelphia Congress, moved that the Colonies ought to be independent states (resolution on July 2nd) Richard Henry Lee
"mulatto" who was one of the first to die at the Boston Massacre Crispus Attucks
Father of the Constitution James Madison
with Benedict Arnold, captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point Ethan Allen
led an abortive (agrarian) revolt against the government of MA Daniel Shays
wrote Common Sense during the time of Valley Forge Thomas Paine
delegate to Constitutional Convention from Pennsylvania who spoke more than any other member Governor Morris
president of the Continental Congress; wealthy New England merchant; King of the Smugglers John Hancock
peace commission; made separate peace with England Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
ultra conservative New Yorker, favored strong central government, helped write Federalist papers, architect of America's economic system (modified capitalism) Alexander Hamilton
defeated the British at Trenton and Princeton George Washington
favored a loose confederation of states; earlier wrote most of Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson
surrendered at Yorktown Lord Cornwallis
navy captain who destroyed much of British merchant ships; "Old Ironsides" John Paul Jones
attorney for the MA merchants who protested the British search of colonial ships that were trading with the enemy during the French and Idnian War;p persuaded MA legislature to call an intercolonial congress for action against the Stamp Tax James Otis
officer in CT militia who was disguised as a schoolteacher to carry papers to George Washington about British dispositions, British caught him in Manhattan, NY and hanged him; he regretted he had but one life to give for his country Nathan Hale
English Prime Minister; understood American colonies; developed a requisition plan to get colonies to help provide for their own defense in French and Indian War; opposed Stamp Act and later Intolerable Acts William Pitt
cleared the "Wilderness Road" from NC to KY to begin a settlement (Boonesborough) Daniel Boone
Philadelphia lawyer, reacted to "external" duties of Townshend Acts in Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer with argument that external taxation was legal only when designed to regulate trade, not raise a revenue John Dickenson
borrowed heavily upon his own personal credit to pay soldiers in George Washington's army Robert Morris
CT shoemaker-politician with a clear head; on the committee to write the Declaration of Independence; delegate to Constitutional Convention; represented commercial interests of CT; wary of democracy; Connecticut Compromise; weary of democracy Roger Sherman
"mad"; in Revolutionary War defended Philadelphia in George Washington's army but Britain attacked with bayonets, 300 killed; later he stormed the British fort at Stony Point on the Hudson; brings down Cornwallis Anthony Wayne
historian who wrote An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution arguing that men who wrote the Constitution did so to protect their economic interests Charles Beard
When did America officially form a treaty with France? 1788
NJ delegate to Constitutional Convention; proposed NJ Plan plan set aside William Paterson
VA delegate to Constitutional Convention; presented the VA plan Edmund Randolph
MA delegate to Constitutional Convention; said evils from which country suffered were due to an "excess of democracy"; feared West would have too many representatives in House and so drag the east coast wealth to the West Elbridge Gerry
SC delegate to the Constitutional Convention Charles C. Pinckney
frontiersman who captured British forts north of the Ohio River George Rogers Clark
commander of British army in America lost battle for Fort Duquesne; the road he had cut from Fort Cumberland to the Ohio Rover made later migration to Ohio easier General Edward Braddock
wrote one of the "Hartford Wits"; extremely conservative point of view; The Anarchiad poem against the debtor minded government of RI which printed paper money in profusion John Trumbull
British general who allowed Washington to escape after the battle at Long Island; stayed in Philadelphia instead of helping Burgoyne Sir William Howe
signed Declaration for NY; leading antifederalist because he was a large landowner and feared the effect of import duties; wrote under pen name of Cato George Clinton
NY delegate to Constitutional Convention; later withdrew on grounds that the Convention had exceeded its authority John Lansing
MA delegate to Constitutional Congress Rufus King
hated Tory governor of MA; fed to England after Revolutionary War Thomas Hutchinson
made treaty of peace with Indians in 1766 ending Pontiac's attack on British military outposts on frontier; supported creating a new colony in WV and KY but war already started Sir William Johnson
Created by: Tiffanyy on 2011-10-04



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