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cell the smallest uit that can perform all life processes;are covered by a membrane and have DNA and cytoplasm
stimulus a change that affects the activity of the organism
homeostasis the maintenance of a stable internal environment
sexual reproduction two parents produce offspring that will share characteristics of both parents; most animals reproduce this way
asexual reproduction a single parent produces offspring that are identical to the parent;most single celled organisms reproduce this way
heredity passing of traits from one generation to the next
metabolism the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
One example of homeostasis in humans is called shivering or sweating
Name the six characteristics of living things. have cells, sense and respond to change, reproduce, have DNA, use energy and grow and develop.
Examples of a stimulus chemicals, gravity, light, sounds, hunger, and touch
Examples of activities of life making food, breaking down food, moving materials into and out of cells, building cells
What are the four needs of organisms? food, water, air and living space
producer an organism that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings
consumer an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter
decomposer an organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients
protein a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body
carbohydrate a class of energy-giving nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipid a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water;fats and steroids are lipids
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
ATP adenosine triphosphate; a molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes
nucleic acid a molecule made up of subunits called nucleotides
Why do organisms need food? food gives organisms energy and the raw material needed to carry on life processes; use the nutrients to replace cells and build body parts
What are the 3 ways organisms get food? produce it, consume it, decompose it
Why do organisms need water? cells are almost 70% water and most chemical reactions in metabolism require water
Why do organisms need air? most living things use oxygen from the air in the chemical process that releases energy from food;plants need carbon dioxide
What process do plants use to make food? Photosynthesis (convert the energy in sunlight to energy stored in food); light+carbon dioxide=food + oxygen
Why do organisms need living space? all organisms need a place to live that contains all of the things they need to survive;organisms often compete with each other for this space
One example of a producer plants
One example of a consumer most animals
one example of a decomposer mushroom
nutrients are made up of molecules
A molecule is a substance made when two or more atoms combine
A compound is molecules made of different kinds of atoms
6 elements that make up most living things carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
The 6 elements combine to form proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, ATP, and nucleic acids
Almost all life processes of a cell involve proteins
How do organisms make new proteins? the proteins in food are broken down to amino acids the the amino acids link up to make new proteins
What are some functions of proteins? help cells like hemoglobin that gives oxygen to the body, protect cells, are enzymes that start or speed up chemical reactions, or make webs, feathers, hair and horns
Sugars are carbohydrates
two types of carbohydrates simple (table sugar) and complex (starch is potatoes)
two types of lipids that store energy are fats and oils
one difference between fats and oils at room temperature - fats are solid and oil is liquid
the blueprints of life nucleic acid (like DNA)
Created by: michaela.L