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Comm 1310 test 2

Communications 1310 Chapter 7-10 key terms

Interpersonal communication Communication that occurs between two people who simultaneously attempt to mutually influence each other, usually for the purpose of managing relationships.
impersonal communication communication that treats people as objects or that responds only to their roles rather than to who they are as unique people.
relationship an ongoing connection made with another person.
relationship of circumstance a relationship that forms situationally,simply because one life overlaps with another in some way.
relationship of choice a relationship that is sought out and intentionally developed.
attraction a motivational state that causes someone to think, feel, and behave in a positive manner toward another person.
interpersonal attraction the degree to which one desires to form or maintain an interpersonal relationship with another person.
short-term initial attraction the degree of potential for developing an interpersonal relationship with someone. involves a judgment that there is potential for a relationship to develop.
long-term maintenance the level of liking or positive feeling that motivates one to maintain or escalate a relationship. Is deeper and more long-lasting than short-term attraction and involves positive feeling that cause us to choose to maintain and escalate relationships.
similarity the degree to which one's characteristics, values, attitudes, interests, or personality traits are like those of another person.
physical attraction the degree to which one finds another person's physical self appealing.
sexual attraction the desire to have sexual contact with a certain person.
matching hypothesis the theory that one tends to seek out individuals who represent the same level of physical attractiveness as oneself.
proximity the likelihood of being attracted to people who are physically close rather than to those who are farther away.
complementarity the degree to which another person's different abilities, interests, and needs balance or round out one's own.
inclusion the need to involve others in one's activities or to be involved in the activities of others.
control the need to make decisions and take responsibility or the level of willingness to accept others' decision making.
affection the need to be loved and accepted by others or the willingness to give love and acceptance to others.
immediacy nonverbal cues, such as eye contact, forward lean, touch, and open body orientation, that communicate feelings of liking pleasure, and closeness.
uncertainty-reduction theory A driving human motivation to increase predictability by reducing the unknown in one's circumstances.
passive strategy a non communicative strategy for reducing uncertainty by observing others and situations. Observing and gathering useful information without interacting with anyone.
active strategy a communicative strategy for reducing uncertainty by getting information from a third party. getting opinions and information from third parties.
interactive strategy A strategy of communicating directly with the source who has the greatest potential to reduce one's uncertainty. getting opinions and information from those parties most directly involved.
conversational narcissism A communication style emerging from the view that one is the center of the universe.
self-absorbed communicator style a dominating communication style in which one focuses attention on oneself.
self-disclosure voluntarily providing information to others that they would not learn if one did not tell them.
reciprocity sharing info about self w/another w/the expectation that they will share info that is similar n risk/depth. person u reveal stuff 2 should respond w/information about themselves that is similar in depth. frequency of sharing should b reciprocal as well.
appropriateness An aspect of self-disclosure related 2 the propriety of revealing certain info 2 another person. it can b a mistake 2 reveal info that is 2 personal 2 soon n the development of a relationship.
social penetration model A model of self-disclosure that assets that both the breadth and the depth of information shared with another person increase as the relationship develops. Onion Theory
Johari Window A model that explains how self-disclosure varies from relationship to relationship; the model reflects various stages of relational development, degrees of self-awareness, and others' perceptions.
Pre-interaction awareness stage the stage of becoming aware of one's attraction to another person and observing that person but not actually interacting. become aware of your attraction to someone and begin to observe that person.
initiation stage the first contact with a person with whom one desires a relationship; usually characterized by asking and answering questions. initiate contact with the person with whom you want a relationship.
exploration stage the stage that involves more in-depth interactions. Interactions deepen as questions and answers elicit more information from partners.
intensification stage stage n which partners begin 2 depend on other 4 self-confirmation; characterized by more shared activities, more time spent together, more intimate physical distance & contact, & personalized language.
intimacy stage the stage in which partners provide primary confirmation of each other's self-concept; characterized by highly personalized and synchronized verbal and nonverbal communication.
turmoil stage the stage characterized by increased conflict, less mutual acceptance, a tense communication climate, and an unclear relationship definition. The climate is tense & relationship definition is unclear.
stagnation stage the stage in which a relationship loses its vitality, partners begin to take each other for granted, and communication and physical contact decline.
de-intensification stage the stage involving significantly decreased interaction, increased distance, and decreased dependence on one's partner for self-confirmation. They increase their physical distance.
individualization stage the stage in which partners define their lives more as individuals and less as a couple.
separation stage the stage in which individuals make an intentional decision to minimize or eliminate further interpersonal interaction.
post-interaction stage The bottom, or final, stage in relational de-escalation, which represents the lasting effects of a relationship on the self.
relational dialectics A perspective that views interpersonal relationships as constantly changing rather than stable and that revolves around how relational partners manage tensions.
interpersonal conflict A struggle that occurs when two people cannot agree on a way to meet their needs.
constructive conflict conflict characterized by cooperation in dealing with differences; helps build new insights and patterns in a relationship.
destructive conflict conflict characterized by a lack of cooperation in dealing with differences; dismantles relationships without restoring them.
pseudoconflict conflict stemming from a lack of understanding.
simple conflict conflict over differences in ideas, definitions, perceptions, or goals.
ego conflict conflict based on personal issues in which people attack each other's self-esteem.
symbolic displacement a phenomenon that occurs when people engage in one conflict through or in place of another symbolically related one or when a participant's behavior is an expression of displaced or unconscious meaning.
serial arguments argumentative episodes focused on the same issue that occur at least twice.
irresolvable conflict a conflict in which one or both parties deem the conflict impossible to resolve.
interpersonal power the ability to influence another in the direction one desires; getting another person to do what one wants.
complementary relationship a relationship in which one partner willingly and continuously cedes power to the other.
symmetrical relationship a relationship characterized by similar control behaviors in partners; partners compete to dominate each other or both relinquish control to the other to avoid making decisions.
parallel relationship a relationship in which power continually shifts from one partner to the other.
assertive communication communication that takes a listener's feeling and rights into account.
aggressive communication self-serving communication that does not take a listener's feelings and rights into account.
non-confrontational style A conflict management style that involves backing off, avoiding conflict, or giving in to the other person. also includes distracting, computing (emotionally detached), and withdrawing.
confrontational style A win-lose approach to conflict management in which one person wants control and to win at the expense of the other. person wants to manipulate others by blaming and making threats.
cooperative style conflict management style in which conflict is viewed as a set of problems to be solved, rather than a competition in which one person wins and another loses. person seeks agreeable resolutions & works for win-win.
Key elements to cooperative conflict style * separates people from problems *focuses on shared interests *generates many options to solve problems * bases decisions on objective criteria
Steps for dealing with emotional response to conflict *select a mutually acceptable time and place 2 discuss conflict *plan ur message *monitor nonverbal msgs *avoid personal attacks, name calling, profanity, & emotional overstatement *use self-talk -thoughts r linked w/feelings; use them 2 keep urself c
Managing information during conflict *clearly describe the conflict-producing events *own ur statements by using descriptive "I" language *use effective listening skills *check your understanding of what others say and do.
Managing goals during conflict *Identify ur goal and ur partner's goal *identify where your goals and your partner's goals overlap.
Problem solving process steps *make sure each fully understand the problem as well as goals *lots of possible solutions the greater chance that u'll succeed in resolution *discuss ALL pros & cons of possible solutions
small group 3 to 15 people who share a common purpose, feel a sense of belonging to the group, and exert influence on one another
small group communication the transactive process of crating meaning among 3 to 15 people who share a common purpose, feel a sense of belonging to the group, and exert influence on each other.
team A coordinated group of people organized to work together to achieve a specific common goal.
Primary group a group, such as a family, that exists to fulfill basic human needs
study group a group that exists to help group members learn new information and ideas
therapy group a group that provides treatment for problems that group members may have
problem-solving group a group that meets to seek a solution to a problem and achieve a goal
focus group a group that is asked to discuss a particular topic or issue so that others can better understand how the group members respond to the topic or issue presented to them
virtual group or team A group or team whose members are not together in the same physical location but who are typically connected via an electronic channel such as the internet, a telephone, or a video conference
social group a group that exists to provide opportunities for group members to enjoy an activity in the company of others
role the consistent way a person communicates with others in a group
task role a role that helps a group achieve its goal and accomplish its work
social role a role that helps a group manage relationships and affects the group climate
individual role a role that focuses attention of the individual rather than on the group
team ground rules the behaviors that are expected of team members, often spelled out in explicit rules of acceptable behavior developed by team members working together
norms standards that determine what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group
initiator/contributor offers new ideas or approaches to the group; suggests ways of getting the job done
information seeker asks for additional clarification, facts, or other information that helps the group with the issues at hand.
opinion seeker asks group members to share opinions or express a personal POV
information giver provides facts, examples, statistics, or other evidence that relates to the task confronting the group
opinion giver offers opinions or beliefs about what the group is discussing
elaborator provides comments or examples to extend or add to the comments of others
coordinator clarifies and notes relationships among the ideas and suggestions that have been offered by others
orienter summarizes what has occurred and seeks to keep the group focused on the task at hand
evaluator/critic assesses the evidence and conclusions that the group is considering
procedural technician helps the group accomplish its goal by handling tasks such as distributing reports, writing ideas on a chalk board, or performing other tasks
recorder makes a written record of the group's progress by writing down specific comments, facts, or the minutes of the meeting
encourager offers praise and support and confirms the value of other people and the ideas they contribute
harmonizer manages conflict and mediates disputes among group members
compromiser resolves conflicts by trying to find an acceptable solution; seeks new alternatives
gatekeeper encourages people who talk too much to contribute less and invites those who are less talkative to participate
follower goes along with the suggestions and ideas of other group members
emotion expresser verbalizes how the group may be feeling about a specific issue or suggestion
group observer summarizes the group's progress or lack of progress
tension reliever monitors stress within the group and offers suggestions for breaks, using humor or other appropriate strategies
aggressor deflates or dis-confirms the status of others group members or tries to take credit for the work of others
blocker is negative, stubborn, and disagreeable without an apparent reason
recognition seeker seeks the spotlight by dwelling on his or her personal accomplishments; seeks the praise of others
self-confessor uses the group as a forum to disclose unnecessary personal feelings and personal problems unrelated to the group's task
joker wants to crack jokes, tell stories, and just have fun instead of focusing on the task or what the group needs
dominator tries to take control of the group, talks too much, and uses flattery or aggression to push his or her ideas off on the group
special-interest pleader seeks to get the group to support a pet project or personal agenda
help seeker seeks to evoke a sympathetic response from others; often expresses insecurity stemming from feeling of low self-worth.
status an individual's importance and prestige
power the ability to influence other people's behavior
legitimate power power that stems from being elected or appointed to a position of authority
referent power power that stems from being popular and well liked
expert power power derived from having expertise and information about issues or ideas
reward power power that results from having the resources to bestow gifts, money, recognition, or other rewards that group members value
coercive power power that stems from being able to punish others
cohesiveness the degree of attraction group members feel toward one another and toward their group
communication interaction pattern a consistent pattern of who talks to whom
group deviate a group member who holds an opinion, attitude, or belief that is different from that of other group members
clique a smaller, cohesive group within a group
All channel network a group in which everyone talks to everyone else; a very open group where no cliques or small subgroups emerge
chain network a form of group communication in which people convey a msg to one person at a time rather than communicating w/ all group members @ once. typical n hierarchical organizations. beware of possible misunderstandings as msg passes through from beginning 2 end
wheel network pattern occurs when one group member receives most of the msgs; also prime source of info. emerges when there is a strong leader or when group members do individual tasks and someone keeps all informed
Phases of group and team development *orientation *conflict *emergence *reinforcement
orientation phase the 1st phase of group interaction, in which members become adjusted to one another and to the group's task
primary tension tension arising from the uncertainty and discomfort that occur when a group first meets
conflict phase the 2nd phase of group interaction, in which group members experience some degree of disagreement about social and task issues
secondary tension the conflict that occurs, after the members of a group have become acquainted with one another, over group norms, roles, leadership, and differences among member opinions
emergence phase the 3rd phase of group interaction, in which conflict or disagreement is managed, decisions are made, and group problems begin to be solved or managed
reinforcement phase the 4th phase of group interaction, in which group members express positive feelings toward each other and toward the group
bona-fide perspective a perspective that focuses on how groups actually operate within organizations.
functional approach An approach to group problems solving that assumes that to achieve a group goal, group members should perform certain communication functions.
vigilant thinker a group member who pays attention to the process of how problems are solved, is sensitive to the need to make changes, identifies the goal of the group, identifies options the group has, and evaluates the positive and negative implications of the options.
results-driven structure A structure that causes a group to focus its efforts on the actions it needs to take to achieve its goals.
Effective group and team actions *identify & implement key functions to achieve results *Identify a clear, elevating goal *develop a results-driven structure *gather and use information effectively *develop options *evaluate ideas *develop sensitivity toward others
structure the way a group or team discussion is organized, focusing on the group's agenda and the task that needs to be achieved.
interaction the give-and-take discussion and responsiveness to other group members
reflective thinking a problem-solving process based on the scientific method
criteria standards for an acceptable solution
force field analysis technique a method of analyzing a problem or issue by identifying forces that increase the likelihood that the desired goal will occur (driving forces) and forces that decrease the probability that the goal will occur (restraining forces).
brainstorming a technique for generating many possible solutions to a problem by with holding evaluation while group members suggest ideas; ideas are evaluated after suggestions have been offered.
silent brainstorming (nominal group technique) a method of generating creative ideas; group members brainstorm individually and write down their ideas before meeting together to share them.
consensus a agreement among all members of a group or team to to support an idea, proposal, or solution.
groupthink a faulty sense of agreement that occurs when members of a group fail to challenge an idea; a false consensus reached when conglict is minimized and group members do not express concerns or reservations about an idea or proposal
Group and Team problem solving steps 1.identify and define the problem 2.analyze the problem 3.generate creative solutions 4.select the best solution 5.take action
leadership the ability to influence the behavior of others through communication
trait approach to leadership a view of leadership that identifies specific qualities or characteristics of effective leaders
functional approach to leadership a view of leadership that identifies the key task and process roles that need to be performed in a group
task function a leadership behavior that helps a group accomplish its job
process function a leadership behavior that helps maintain a positive group climate
styles approach to leadership a view of leadership that identifies three methods of interacting when leading others: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire
authoritarian leader one who leads by directing, controlling, telling,and ordering others
democratic leader one who leads by developing a consensus among group members; a leader who asks for input and then uses the input when leading and making decisions
laissez-faire leader one who fails to lead or who leads or exerts influence only when asked or directed by the group.
situational approach to leadership a view of leadership as an interactive process in which a leader gauges how to lead based on such factors as the quality of the relationships among group members, the power of the leader, the nature of the the task, and the maturity of the group
transformational approach to leadership a view of leadership that defines a leader as one who leads by shaping the vision of the group and by developing trust through quality interpersonal relationships with group members
monochronic preferring to do one thing at a time, pay attention to deadlines and schedules, and use time efficiently
polychronic preferring to do many things at once, place less emphasis on deadlines and schedules, and consider relationships to be more important than work and meeting deadlines.
agenda a written plan for achieving the goals during a group meeting, which typically includes items for discussion, action, and information.
quorum the minimum number or persons who must be present at a meeting to conduct business.
meta discussion discussion about the discussion process; comments that help the group remain focused on the goals of the group or that point out how the group is doing its work
Created by: mamafer