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What is a cell? the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; covered by a membrane and have DNA and cytoplasm
What is stimulus? anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism
What is homeostasis? the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment
What is sexual reproduction? reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite, producing offspring that share traits from both parents
What is asexual reproduction? reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells and in which one parents produces offspring identical to itself
What is heredity? the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
What is a metabolism? the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
What is a producer? an organism that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings
What is a consumer? an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter
What is a decomposer? an organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients
What is protein? a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and regulate processes in the body structures and to regulate processes in the body
What is a carbohydrate? a class of energy-giving nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What is a lipid? a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water; fats and steroids are lipids
What is a phospholipid? a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
What is ATP? adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes
What is nucleic acid? a molecule made up of subunits called nucleotides
What are all living things made up of? cells
What covers a cell? a cell membrane
What does a cell contain? all of the materials necessary for life
How are the contents of a cell protected from the cell's environment? the cell membrane that surrounds a cell separates the contents from the environment
In an organism containing many cells, how is the work performed? different kinds of cells perform specialized functions
What are 3 examples of stimuli? chemicals, gravity, and light
When an organism's outside environment changes, how does the organism maintain stable internal conditions? through homeostasis
Why must an organism maintain stable internal conditions? chemical reactions keep organisms alive, and these reactions only take place when conditions are exactly right
What is your body trying to do when you are sweating or shivering? to return itself to normal
How do some animals control their body temperatures? by moving from one environment to another
When do two parents produce offspring that share their characteristics? in sexual reproduction
When does a single parent produce offspring identical to it? in asexual reproduction
What do most single-celled organisms reproduce through? asexual reproduction
What do most animals and plants reproduce through? sexual reproduction
What does DNA do? controls the structure and function of cells
What do organisms pass on to their offspring? copies of their DNA
What are 3 examples of activities carried out by all organisms? building cells, making food, and breaking down food
How does a single-celled organism grow? it gets larger and divides in to new organisms
How do organisms with many cells grow? the number of their cells get larger and the organism gets bigger
In addition to getting larger, what other things might happen as living things grow? development or change
What are the four basic needs of every organism? water, air, food, and a place to live
How much of most living thing's cells are water? 70%
What do most chemical reactions involved in metabolism require? water
About how long can humans survive without water? 3 days
Air is a mixture of what gasses? oxygen and carbon dioxide
What is a chemical process in which most living things use oxygen? releasing energy from food
What types of air do green plants, algae, and some bacteria need? carbon dioxide and oxygen
When do green organisms convert the energy in sunlight to energy stored in food? photosynthesis
What do organisms need in the place where they live? all the things necessary for life
How does the limited amount of space on Earth affect organisms? organisms need to compete with each other for necessities
What are two things food gives organisms? energy and raw materials needed to carry on life processes
What are two ways organisms use nutrients from food? to replace cells and build body parts
What do all organisms do to food in order to use the nutrients in it? break down food
What are nutrients made up of? molecules
What is a molecule? a substance created when two or more atoms combine
What is a compound? molecules made up of different kinds of atoms
What are the five building blocks of cells? protein, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid, and ATP
What are enzymes? proteins that speed up chemical reactions
What is hemoglobin? a protein found in red blood cells that attaches to oxygen
What is protein? a nutrient involved in almost all life processes
What are amino acids? compounds that make up proteins
How do cells use carbohydrates? cells break down carbohydrates and release the energy stored in them
What is a simple carbohydrate? a carbohydrate made of one sugar molecule or a few linked sugar molecules
What is a complex carbohydrate? a carbohydrate made of hundreds of molecules linked together
What is an example of a simple carbohydrate? table sugar
What is an example of a complex carbohydrate? potatoes
What are the molecules that form most of the cell membrane? phospholipids
Where can an organism get energy once it has used up most of its carbohydrates? from fats and oils
What is a difference between fats and oils? at room temperature, fats are solid and oils are liquid
What is the major energy-carrying molecule of the cell? ATP
How do cells get energy from carbohydrates and lipids? the energy from carbohydrates and lipids a transferred to ATP, which then provides fuel for cellular activities
Why are nucleic acids called the blueprints of life? they have all the information needed for a cell to make proteins
Why must organisms have food? food is a source of energy
What is a change in an organism's environment that affects the organism's activities? stimulus
What do organisms store energy in? lipids
What is the molecule that contains the information about how to make proteins? ATP
What are the subunits of nucleic acids? nucleotides
What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction? sexual reproduction requires the union of sex cells, but asexual reproduction does not
Why must living things have air? most living things use oxygen in the chemical processes that releases energy
How do some animals maintain homeostasis? they move from one environment to another
What are four chemical activities in living things that require energy? making food, building cells, breaking down food, and moving materials in and out of cells
What process do plants use to make food? photosynthesis
What is the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates? simple carbohydrates are made of one sugar molecule, complex carbohydrates are made of many sugar molecules linked together
What is one difference between fats and oils? at room temperature, most fats are solid and most oils are liquid
Created by: mreed7