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Child Language Dev.

Exam #1 Review Terms

Action relational words Semantic category; stands for words that define the manner in which actions are related through movement
Adult based vocabulary Required in defining TFW; Vocabulary typically used/produced by an adult
Analogical overextension A word for one object that is extended to another object which is not in same clear category but still has similar characteristic (physical or functional) Class example: Calling soft scarf kitty (feels like a cat)
Answering Speech act where a child typically answers prompted question (yes, no, that)
Babbling Long strings of sounds that children begin to produce around 4 months of age
Basic level vocabulary Often times monosyllabic words that adults use to model language to their child; most functional and common; Class example: dog
Birth order Parent report data: does not have an effect (significant one) on the language acquisition/development
Bound morpheme Unit of meaning that can not stand alone; must be attached to a free morpheme; typically modifies that free morpheme; generally includes grammatical tags that are derivational (-ly, -er, -ment) or inflectional (-ed, -s)
Calling Speech act where a child calls for someone/something (Mommy, hey)
Categorical extension A word for one member of a clear category is extended to other members of that category; Class example: child uses apple in order to name fruit (any type)
Classical conditioning (Association Theory) A learning process that consists of child being exposed to a stimulus (sees object), hears the word and associates the two together (Pavlov); the early acquisition of non-nominals indicates that this process is not adequate
Closed class words Functor words; grammatical words that can not be made up and are often times relational (auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, prepositions, articles, pronouns)
Cognition Higher level thinking; learning; processes associated with memory, attention etc
Combinatorial speech Combination of both rote and generative processes; class example: "Me sees tubbiesontv"
Comunicative Intention Purpose of utterance; i.e. to gain information, to give information, to ask for permission; humans have the intentionality to communicate with one another
Compound noun Noun containing two nouns
Comprehension Comprehension precedes production of language
Decontextualization The meaning of a word generalizes; At first child only uses certain word within a particular context; eventually the word becomes more generalized
Disappearance words Apparent upon realization of object permanence….when an object “disappears” children acquire “disappearance” words (all gone)
Disconnection (mismatch) May be TFW, but the child refers to the object as something different than the adult; occurs infrequently
Faculty of mind Not related to the development in other domains (cognition, memory, attention); Indicates that humans are born to talk
Functor word Closed class words; grammatical
Gender On average, girls have a better pronunciation of first words. However, in the distribution, boys are at more extreme ends of the spectrum (very high, very low)
General nominal General noun: objects, substances, animals & people, letters & numbers, abstractions, pronouns (ball, milk, girl, birthday, he, that)
Generative Children learn “formula” or “rule” of grammar & apply it to their situation Example: Subject-verb-object, noun + plural
Grammar System of rules or underlying principles that describe the five aspects of language (syntax, morphology, semantics, phonology, pragmatics
Greetings Words used in greetings; (hi, bye-bye, thank you)
Holophrastic speech Child uses single word utterances to express larger meanings; adults are able to gloss meaning to understand the whole phrase (“cookie”→ “I’d like a cookie.)
Idiosyncratic speech Words that are not adult based; words that are often times invented by the child; has meaning to the child
Inference (type of learning) Child infers word meaning from experiences; children map meanings from exposures to relevant evidence; able to draw conclusions from small amount of information & apply to life
Inflection Modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, grammatical mood, grammatical voice, aspect, person, gender, number etc
Intonation Varies depending on the speech act
Joint reference Process of differentiating or noting a particular object, action, or event for the purpose of communication; serves as infant’s “Rosetta Stone” for decoding language
Labeling Speech Act that involves naming things; emerges early; vocabulary knowledge
Means-end ability Tool use; two actions in sequence, the first leads to the enabling of the second
Modifier Modifies verb, noun; often times adjectives, attributes, states, locatives, possessives (big, red, pretty, hot, allgone, outside, there, mine)
Morpheme Smallest unit of meaning; indivisible (dog) without violating the meaning or producing meaningless units (do, g). There are two types of morphemes, free and bound.
Morphology Aspect of language concerned with rules governing change in meaning at the intraword level; word structure
Motherese Style of talking used most often by white middle-class American mothers when addressing their 18- 24 month-old toddlers
Mutual gaze Eye contact with a communication partner; used to signal intensified attention
New/old information Principle that describes children's use of words to add meaning to a situation...in other words, they will use words to comment on what has changed (what is new) in the environment rather than describing/labelling others or conditions that are static
Nominal Noun; specific and general nominal
Noun object
Object permanence Representation of unseen objects; children learn that objects are permanent
Overextension Process in which a child applies a word’s meaning to more exemplars than an adult would. The child’s definition is too broad and is thus beyond acceptable adult usage (categorical, analogical, statements)
Overgeneralization Children apply rules to every case; do not pick up the grammatical exceptions (goodest, runned); indicates intelligent thinking, but wrong
Overlap Combines overextenstions with under extensions (Collies-->underextenstion + long-haired cats --> overextension)
Past tense Verb is conjugated to display an event that occurred in the past
Personal-social word Words that are expressed within a person/social interaction; assertions and social expressive (no, yes, want; please, ouch)
Phonetic stability Determining factor of TFW; child replicates same phonetic form; captures adult's attention
Phonetically Consistent Form Consistent vocal patterns that accompany gestures prior to the appearance of words; although phonetically stable, may not be referentially stable
Phonology Sound system; aspect of language concerned with the rules governing the structure, distribution and sequencing of speech-sound patterns
Plural more than one thing/object
Pragmatics Situational use; aspect of language concerned with language use within communication context
Precursor behavior Social precursors: turn taking; joint reference, game playing Cognitive precursors: object permanence; deferred imitation; symbolic and combinatorial play; means-end abilities (tool use)
Predicate One of the tow main parts of a sentence; must contain verb + objects;predicates, adverbs
Prefix beginning root of a word
Presupposition Process of assuming which information a listener possesses or may need
Pre-word Idiosyncratic word; not adult baed; may be phonetically and referentially stable
Production For a word to be a TFW, the utterance must be adult based, referentially stable and phonetically stable
Pronoun Examples: me, you, her, she, that etc
Proper noun Specific nominal; names of specific people, things, or places
Prosody (suprasegmental devices) Paralinguistic mechanisms superimposed on the verbal signal to change the form and meaning of the sentence by acting across the elements or segments of that sentence (examples: intonation, stress, and inflection)
Protesting Speech act; usually negative word (no)
Protoword Prior to first words
Protoconversation Vocal interactions between mothers and infants the resemble verbal exchanges of more mature conversations
Prototype Best exemplar or a composite of the concept; fruit (apple)
Reciprocal action Game playing-social precursor to language (patty cake)
Reduplication Phonological process in which child repeats one syllable in a multisyllabic word, as in wawa for water; baba for bottle etc
Referential stability Child matches up word with classes of references consistently
Referential use With vocabulary growth, child begins to label more things and calling for specific nominals; vocal matches with referents
Regression When children shift from isolated words to regular patterns, may appear to regress in production of words; reorganization of sound system to move forward may appear as regression
Rehearsal (in learning) process of maintaining info within long-term memory; repetition, drill or practice
Relational word Words that refer across entities including action, location, appearance, disappearance and possession; close class words; verbs etc
Repeating/practicing Children practice word production in independent/representational play
Representational play Children use objects to represent another object in play; words represent other objects; playing house outside etc
Requesting action Speech act; (verb or possessive pronoun me)
Requesting answer speech act (what? that?)
Rote High frequency of input; proves effective in learning words
Semantics Aspect of language concerned with rules governing the meaning or content of words or grammatical units; word meaning
Social smile Infant's smile in response to an external social stimulus
Socioeconomic status Little effect on word learning; more affluent families will be able to provide children with more semantic input-own more things, children are exposed to more objects which allow for increase in vocabulary producation
Sound avoidance Some children avoid certain sounds; Class example: /u/
Sound preference Some children prefer certain sounds; class example: bilabials (bottle, bubble)
Specific nominal Proper noun; specific people, place or thing
Specificity Hypothesis Word choice is correlated with the cognitive development: object permanence: disappearance (all gone); means-ends: success (yes/no) and failure words (no/can't) Means- ends behavior show overall better correlation with language development
Speech Act Basic unit of communication; an intentional, verbally encoded message that includes the speaker's intentions, the speaker's meaning, the listener's interpretation: requesting action, protesting, requesting answer, labeling, answering, greetings, rep, call
Statement extension Children do not label an object, but make a statement about it in relation to another object; ex: saying Dolly upon seeing the empty doll's bed
Stereotyped gesture a child reaches "for show"adults are able to interpret the behavior as the child expressing a want.the term would apply equally to any other gestural behavior used consistently to communicate meaning
Subject person/thing doing the action (verb)
Subordinate Specific lexical level (dachshund in dog example in notes); often times too complicated for children to grasp
Substantive word Words that refer to specific entities or class of entities that have certain shared features
Suffix Ending root of a word
Superordinate Broad lexical level often times too abstract (not concrete enough) for children to understand; (animal in dog example)
Symbolic play Representational play
Syntax Organizational rules specifying word order, sentence organization and word relationships
Tool use Means-ends ability
True First Word Must be adult based, referentially and phonetically stable
Turn taking Social precursor for language
Underextension Process in which a child applies a word meaning to fewer exemplars than an adult would. The child's definition is too restrictive and more limited than in adult usage
Visual regard direction in which someone is looking; when two people have shared visual regard, they are looking in the same direction, establishing shared visual regard between an adult and a baby is an important achievement
Created by: 9902riordam