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SI chap. 5

Developmental psychology studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout life span
zygotes the fertilized egg; conception to 2 weeks
embryo developing human organism; 2 weeks to 9 weeks
fetus developing human organism; 9 weeks to birth
teratogens harmful agents that can reach the embryo or fetus
maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior
cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication
schema a concept or framework
assimilation interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schema
accommodation adapting our current understanding to incorporate new information
Piaget's theory 4 stages: sensorimotor stage, preoperational, concrete, and formal
Sensorimotor Piaget: infants learn in terms of their senses (0-2)
object permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when out of sight
preoperational Piaget: child learns to use language but does not comprehend concrete logic (2-7)
egocentrism child has difficulty taking another's point of view
concrete operational Piaget: child gains mental operations and are able to think logically (7-11)
formal operational Piaget: stage of cognitive development where people can think about abstract concepts (11+)
attachment emotional tie with another person
critical periods optimal period when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development
self-concept our understanding and evaluation of who we are
adolescence period from childhood to adulthood
puberty period of sexual maturation
primary sex characteristics reproductive organs and external genitalia
secondary sex characteristics nonreproductive traits such as hips and facial hair
menarche first menstrual period
Kohlberg theory Moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, postconvential
Erikson's stages Psychosocial development: 8 stages
identity our sense of self
social identity our self concept that comes from our group membership
emerging adulthood period from late teens to early twenties that bridges the gap from dependence to full independence
cross-sectional study people of different are compared with one another
longitudinal study same people are restudied and retested over a long period
crystallized intelligence our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; increases with age
fluid intelligence ability to reason speedily and abstractly; decreases during late adulthood
social clock culturally preferred timing of social events (marriage, parenthood, retirement)
Created by: cfranci2