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Chapt. 1 vocab psych

psychology the study of the mind and behavior
behavior any action or reaction of a living organism which can be observed
cognition what and how the organism thinks, knows, and remembers
psyche the mind in its entirety - different from the physical body - also the ancient Greek concept of the "soul"
monism belief that the mind and body are the different aspects of the same thing - they are one
dualism belief that the mind and body are different things that interact - they are separate
nature-nurture controversy the argument over the extent to which behavior results from heredity and experience
school of structuralism (structuralists) first perspective that believed psychology should involve the scientific study of the conscious mind. influenced by atomic theory of matter --> all complex substances can be separated into component elements and analyzed - the "structure" of the mind
school of functionalism (functionalists) early psychological perspective concerned with what the mind does and why - the "function" of the mind - inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution
theories a principle or group of interrelated principles that claims to explain or predict related phenomena
phrenology early attempt to analyze the mind by examining the shape of the skull
introspection the process of attempting to access directly one's own internal psychological processes, judgments, perceptions, or states
phenomenology the idea that behavior is based on natural, unanalyzed perception
hypothesis prediction of how 2 or more factors are likely to interact or be realated
replication repetition of the methods used in a previous experiment to see whether the same methods will yield the same results
subjects the humans or animals who are being studied or observed
independent variable (IV) the factor the researcher manipulates in a controlled experiment (the cause)
Dependent variable (DV) the behavior or mental process that is measured in an experiment or quasi-experiment (the effect)
population all the individuals in the group being studied (such as all college students, all female high school students with eating disorders, or all Americans, etc)
sample the subgroup of the population that participates in the study ( your group of research subjects)
random selection choosing members of a population in a manner that allows every individual to have an EQUAL chance of being chosen
experimental group the subjects that receive the treatment (independent variable - the group exposed to the "cause")
control group the comparison group; the subjects in the sample that are similar to the experimental group in every way except they are not actually exposed to the "cause" - control subjects do not receive the independent variable
random assignment division of the sample into groups so that every individual has an EQUAL chance of being put in any group or condition (experimental or control)
confounding variables differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable that can influence your results - generally something you either don't realize can affect your data or you can't control the effect it has
operational definition a description of the specific procedure used to determine/measure the presence of a variable
experimenter bias a phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
demand characteristics clues participants discover about the purpose of the study that suggest how they should respond
single-blind procedure research design in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental or control group
double-blind procedure research design in which neither the experimenter not the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group
placebo a fake special treatment; classic example is a sugar pill instead of actual medicine
placebo effect subjects in an experimental group could have behave differently than they normally would only because they know they're being exposed to a special treatment
reliability consistency or repeatability of results
validity whether an instrument measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure or predict
experiment subjects exposure to some event, treatment, or condition which is manipulated by the experimenter (this factor is called the independent variable). Subject's behavior (the dependent variable) is then recorded
quasi-experiment measurement of a dependent variable when random assignment to groups is not possible
correlational studies allow researchers to determine whether a relationship exists between 2 variables (but cannot actually determine if one thing caused the other)
correlation coefficient (r) a statistical measure that describes the strength of a relationship - coefficient ranges from -1 to +1 (-1 is just as strong as +1 and only differs in the direction of the relationship)
positive correlation high scores on one variable tend to be paired with high scores on the other variable - and low scores with low scores (e.g. more studying has a positive correlation with higher test grades)
negative correlation high scores on one variable tend to be paired with low scores on the other variable (e.g. low stress has a negative correlation with lower rates of illness)
illusory correlation the perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists
false consensus effect tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people share our own beliefs and behaviors
scatterplot a graph of dots representing the data between 2 variables. the graphed dots then indicate what type of correlation exists (if any)
naturalistic observation careful observations of humans or other animals in real-life situations (in their natural environments)
surveys individuals reply to a series of questions or to rate their agreement with various statements - the purpose is to discover beliefs, opinions, and attitudes
case studies a single individual is studied intensely to examine a problem or issue relevant to the person
descriptive statistics numbers that summarize a set of research data obtained from a sample
inferential statistics allow you to make inferences about a population based on the characteristics of the data you collected from your sample
statistical significance (p) simply means that the probability of any relationship (or difference) you find in your sample wasn't likely to have happened by chance
ethical guidelines suggested rules for acting responsibly and morally when conducting research or in clinical practice
informed consent telling subjects all features of the experiment prior tot heir participation in the study
Created by: bwallace28