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Psych 101!

Introduction to Psychology Chapters 1-3

Wilhelm Wundt Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
Sigmund Freud Austrain physician who developed the influential theory of personality
William James and Mary Whiton Calkins William James mentored Mary Calkins, a pioneering memory researcher and first woman president of the American Physchological Association (denied Harvard Ph. D)
Margaret Floy Washburn First woman to receive a psychology Ph. D. and synthesized animal behavior research.
Behaviorism Psychology should be an objective science (and "should" be studied without reference to mental processes)
Humanistic Psychology Emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and an individuals personal growth.
Cognitive Neuroscience Study of brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Psychology The science of behavior and mental processes
John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner Demonstrated conditioned responses on "Little Albert" and championed psychology as the science of behavior.
B. F. Skinner Was a leading behaviorist who rejected inspection and studied how consequences shape behavior (pigeons)
Nature-Nurture Issue Controversy over the relative contributions of biology and the experience to the development of our traits and behaviors.
Levels of Analysis in Psychology Differing complementary views (biological, psychological, social-cultural) for analyzing phenomenon
Biopsychosocial Approach Integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis)
Psychology's Current Perspectives Neuroscience, Evolutionary, Behavior genetics, Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social-cultural
Basic Research Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied Research Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Counseling psychology A branch that assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater well-being
Clinical psychology A branch that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Psychiatry Branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; Practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical as well as psychological therapy
Hindsight Bias Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it (I knew it all along)
Critical Thinking Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Theory An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
Hypothesis A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
Operational Definition A statement of the procedures used to define research variables
Replication Repeating the essence of a research study to see whether a the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Case study An observation technique where one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Survey A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group
Population All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
Random sample A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Naturalistic observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Correlation Extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other (-1 to +1)
Illusory Correlation Perception of a relationship where none exists
Experiment Research method where an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
Random assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
Experimental group Group that is exposed to the treatment (exposed to one version of the variable)
Control group Group that is not exposed to the treatment (contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluation effect of treatment)
Double-blind procedure An experimental procedure where both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether participants have received treatment or a placebo
Placebo effect Any effect on behavior caused by administration of inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
Independent variable Experimental factor that is manipulated (variable whose effect is being studied).
Dependent variable Outcome factor; Variable that may change in response to manipulations of independent variable
Culture Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
SQ3R A study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, rehearse, and review.
Biological Psychology Scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes.
Neuron A nerve cell; basic building block of the nervous system
Dendrite Neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward a cell body
Axon Neuron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers (forms junctions with other neurons, muscles, or glands)
Action potential A neural impulse; brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Threshold Level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Synapse The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic clefts between neurons. Travel across and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron influencing whether neuron will generate neural impulse
Endorphins Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Nervous System Speedy, electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Central Nervous System Consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System Sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Nerves Bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and other sense organs
Sensory Neurons Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Motor Neurons Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Interneurons Neurons in the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between sensory and motor inputs
Somatic Nervous System Division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles (skeletal nervous system)
Autonomic Nervous System Part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs
Sympathetic Nervous System Division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body (fight or flight) mobilizing energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System Division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body and conserves energy (rest and recover)
Reflex A simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus
Endocrine System "Slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Hormones Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream; affect other tissues
Adrenal glands Pair of endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinehrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress
Pituitary gland Endocrine system's most influential gland; under influence of hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Lesion A type of tissue destruction; can be naturally or experimentally caused in the brain
Brainstem Oldest part and central core of the brain; begins where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. Is responsible for automatic survival functions
Electroencephalogram (EEG) An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface (waves measured by electrodes)
PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a task
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue (show brain anatomy)
fMRI (functional MRI) Technique for revealing bloodflow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans (show brain function)
Medulla Base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing
Thalamus Brain's sensory switchboard on top of brainstem. Directs messages to sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Reticular formation Nerve network in brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Cerebellum "Little brain;" Functions include some nonverbal learning, processing sensory input, and coordinating movement output and balance
Limbic system Neural system associated with emotions and drives (includes hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) below cerebral hemispheres
Amygdala Two lima-bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system linked to emotion
Hypothalamus Directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland, and liked to emotion and reward (below thalamus)
Cerebral Cortex Intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering cerebral hemispheres; body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Frontal lobes Portion of cerebral cortex just behind forehead involved with speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
Parietal lobes Portion of cerebral cortex at the top of the head that receives sensory input for touch and body position
Occipital lobes Portion of cerebral cortex back of the head that receives information from the visual fields
Temporal lobes Portion of cerebral cortex roughly above the ears that includes auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
Motor cortex Area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Sensory cortex Area at the front of the parietal loves that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Association areas Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, but are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking, and integrating information
Aphasia Impairment of language usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impaired understanding)
Broca's area controls language expression; area of frontal lobe that directs muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's area controls language reception; area in temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression
Phineas Gage Ruptured his frontal lobes which caused a disconnect from his behavior; altered personality and personal inhibitions
Plasticity Brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
Neurogenesis Formation of new neurons
Corpus Callosum Large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Split brain Condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mostly corpus callosum) connecting them
Created by: jgk25