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Chapter 2 Human Bio

Cells and structure

Organelle Structures inside of the cell
What is the 6 functions of cells Basic unit of life, protection and support, movement, communication, cell metabolism and energy release, inheritance
Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane outermost component of a cell, forms a boundary, protects cell
Extracellular substance substances outside the cell
Intracellular Substance substances inside the cell
Mosaic Model a structural model of the arrangement of molecules in a cell membrane
Nucleus cell organelle containing most of the genetic material of the cell, center of a atom with protons and neutrons
Nucleolus rounded dense, well defined bodies with no surrounding membrane, units of ribosomes are manufactured here
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) in cytoplasm, many attached ribosomes, site of protein synthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER) in cytoplasm, site of lipid synthesis
Golgi Apparatus in cytoplasm, modifies protein structure and packages proteins in secretory vesicles
Lysosomes in cytoplasm, contains enzymes that digest material taken into cells
Mitochondrion the powerhouse, in cytoplasm, site of aerobic respiration and the major site of ATP synthesis
Microtubules in cytoplasm, supports cytoplasm, assists in cell division and forms components of cilia and flagella
Cilia On cell surface with many on each cell they move substances over surface of certain cells
Flagella On sperm cell surface with one per cell, propels the sperm cells
Microvilli extension of cell surface with many on each cell increase surface area of certain cells
Ribosomes small spherical cytoplasmic organelle where protein synthesis occurs
Cytoskeleton the collection of microtubules microfilaments and intermediate filaments that support the cytoplasm and organelles also involved with cell movements
What are 4 ways molecules can pass through the cell membrane Directly through the phospholipid membrane, membrane channels, carrier molecules and vesicles
Solution mixture formed when a solute dissolves in a solvent
Solutes dissolved substance in a solution
Solvent liquid that holds a other substance in solution
Diffusion tendency for solute molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to a area of lower concentration in a solution the product of the constant random motion of all atoms ions or molecules in a solution
Concentration gradient the measure of the difference in the concentration of a solute in a solvent between two points
Osmosis diffusion of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to one of lower water concentration
Osmotic pressure force required to prevent the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
Hypotonic solution that causes cells to swell
Isotonic solution that causes cells to neither shrink or swell
Hypertonic solution that causes cells to shrink
Facilitated Diffusion carrier mediated process that does not require ATP and moves substances into or out of cells from a higher to lower concentration
Active transport carrier mediated process that requires ATP and can move substances into or out of cells from a lower to a higher concentration
Sodium potassium exchange pump moves sodium ions out of the cells and potassium ions into cells
Endocytosis bulk uptake of material through the cell membrane by taking it into a vesicle
Exocytosis Eliminaton of material from a cell through the formation of cells
Glycolysis anaerobic process during which one glucose molecule is converted to 2 pyruvic acid molecules, a net of 2 ATP molecules is produced during Glycolysis
Aerobic Respiration breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and about 38 ATP molecules includes glycolysis the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain
Anerobic Respiration breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen to produce lactic acid and 2 ATP molecules consists of glycolysis and the reduction of pyruvic acid to lactic acid
Created by: hayboy