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Motor System

Details of the motor system

Name the parts of the basal ganglia. The caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus (containing the putamen and the globus pallidus).
What is the motor system responsible for? Voluntary movement of skeletal muscles and background posture and muscle tone.
What are the four neural substrates for movement? Motivation, Ideation(activity to achieve goal), Programming(unconscious motor plan), and Execution.
Name the four programming centers. Premotor Cortex, Supplementary Motor Cortex, Basal Ganglia, and Cerebullum.
What is the Supplementary Motor Cortex responsible for? Sequencing movements, particularly memory-guided ones.
Which area of the brain contains half of the neurons in the entire nervous system? The Cerebellum.
What is the cerebellum responsible for? Ensures movement is carried out as planned, by comparing the intended with the actual movement and modifying the output of the descending motor system as needed.
Damage to the cerebellum can result in what? Ataxia, incoordination of movements, or dysmetria, lack of coordination concerning distance
What is the main role of the basal ganglia? The main role in normal movement is the inhibitory effect of the basal ganglia on the thalamocortical circuit.
What is the corona radiata? Fan like motor tracts that descend through the cortex.
What is the internal capsule? Continuation of motor tracts that leave the cortex and pass through the basal ganglia and thalamus.
Where does the corticospianl tract originate? Sensorimotor areas of the cerebral cortex.
What is the destination of the corticospinal tract? The gray matter of the spinal cord.
What are the three functions of the corticospinal tract? Voluntary movement, fine motor control and reflex regulation.
What is the path of the corticospinal tract? From the cortex, through the internal capsule, the cerebral peduncle at the midbrain level, and decussate at the medulla.
Why is the corticospinal tract referred to as the pyramidal tract? Because of the large number of axons that form a pyramid on the ventral surface of the medulla.
Where do the corticobulbar neurons terminate? In the reticular formation of the brainstem.
Name the direct pathways of the motor system. Corticospinal and corticobulbar.
Name the indirect pathways of the motor system. Vestiblospinal tract, rubrospinal tract, and reticulospinal tract.
What differentiates upper motor neurons from lower motor neurons? Upper motor neurons are encased in bone while lower motor neurons have axons that are outside of bone, although the cell body may originate in the CNS.
What are some of the characteristics of lower motor neurons? Lower motor neuron are multipolar cells, they have extensive dendritic arborization, and each one receives 1000's of synapses from higher centers and interneurons.
What are four mechanism of a simple reflex arc? 1 - receptor organ, 2- afferent neuron, 3- efferent neuron, and 4- effector organ.
What key functions do reflexes play in motor control? They adjust for unexpected changes, they assist with coordination of ongoing muscle activity, and the allow rapid protection from pain.
Created by: dpalacios