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RBSC Senior Science

HSC flash cards

What makes up the central nervous system? The brain and spinal cord
What are the three types of neurons? Sensory neurons, Interneurons and motor neurons
What is a neuron? A nerve cell
Name the 5 main sense organs and the stimulus they detect. Skin (touch, pain, heat); Eyes (light); Ears (sound); Nose (chemical smells); Tongue (chemical tastes)
Name two effectors. Gland or muscle
Simply describe a reflex arc. Stimulus > Receptor > Sensory neuron > Central nervous system (spinal cord)> Motor neuron > Effector organ
State the function of an artery. To carry blood away from the heart (towards the body cells). Generally carries oxygenated blood.
State the function of a vein. To carry blood toward the heart (back from the body cells). Generally carries deoxygenated blood.
Name the components of human blood. Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and dissolved substances carries in plasma fluid.
Identify the functions of white blood cells. Identify tissue damage, fight disease, engulf and dispose of dead cells.
What is total internal reflection? A phenomenon of light which occurs when light is reflected within a medium because the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle.
Name the three types of bacteria. Cocci, bacilli and spirilla.
What process is used by bacteria to reproduce? Binary Fission
What is the advantage of inflammation? It is essential to isolate and destroy foreign particles or pathogens and prepare the tissue for healing.
What are prostaglandins? Chemicals produced by cells that act to dilute blood vessels (allowing more blood to flow to the area), increase vascular permeability (so blood cells can leave the vessels), and stimulate white blood cell migration to the injured site.
What is an analgesic? Give an example. A group of pharmaceuticals that act as 'pain killers'. Salicylic acid (aspirin) is an example of an analgesic.
What is information represented by in a digital system? Zeros and ones
What height does a geostationary satellite revolve at? 36000kms
Why does a geostationary satellite revolve at 36000kms? This is the height at which it will travel at a speed at which the satellite will remain at a constant position relative to the earth
What is a carrier wave? A wave with constant amplitude and frequency, used to carry coded information.
What does AM stand for? Amplitude modulation.
Name one advantage of FM over AM radio. Generally, the quality of FM reception is better.
Name one advantage of AM over FM radio waves. AM radio waves reflect well. They are able to be bounced off the ionosphere so do not require relay towers or satellites.
What is an advantage of using microwaves in communication? They can travel through space and the atmosphere without a medium, such as a wire, so communication can occur wirelessly anywhere.
What is a disadvantage of using microwaves in communication? They travel in straight lines so therefore, when traveling over longer distances, they require repeater stations to bounce them around corners.
Name the four types of EM waves currently used in communication systems. Radio waves (TV and radio communication), microwaves (satellite communication), infrared waves (remote control) and visible light (optic fiber technology)
Identify the energy transformation occurring in land connected telephones. Sound > Electrical > sound
What are the three types of mixtures? Solutions, colloids and suspensions.
Identify an example of a solution. Could include: Salt water or mixed cordial (sugar in water).
What is a suspension? Give an example. A mixture in which the particles of one medium are larger than the other particles and as such, the larger particles will settle out over time. For example, muddy water, fresh milk (non-homogenized), paint, calamine lotion.
What is a colloid? Give an example. Colloids are a mixture which has a homogenous appearance but the particles of one medium are larger than the other. The particles will not settle easily out over time. An example is homogenised milk, mayonaise, shaving cream, whipped cream and so on.
Give an example of a colloid that is also an emulsion. Mayonaise.
How can surface tension be demonstrated? An insect walking on water, the formation of rain droplets, the meniscus formed in a test tube.
What is surface tension? A property of a liquid which results from the attraction between water molecules (cohesive forces) being stronger than the attraction of water molecules and the surrounding air (adhesive forces).
Explain the formation of a meniscus when water is placed into a test tube or beaker. Because the adhesive forces between water and glass are stronger than the cohesive forces between the water molecules, a concave meniscus is formed.
What are some examples of oil-in-water (water-based) colloids? Hand lotions, face cleansing lotions and conditioners. These require a small amount of oil to help moisturise the skin.
What are some examples of water-in oil (oil-based) colloids? Cold creams, night creams and hair creams.
What is the purpose of an emulsifying agent used in detergent? It allows the agent to keep oily substances away from the article being washed.
Why are soaps and detergents termed emulsifying agents? They assist two immiscible substances, such as oil and water, to mix. Soaps and detergents allow oil to disperse in water.
Why are soaps and detergents termed surfactants? Soaps and detergents are surfactants because they act at the surfaces between two immiscible substances, such as oil and water.
Define the term biodegradable. •Biodegradable is a term to describe a substance that can be broken down by living organisms, such as microbes.
Is soap biodegradable? Explain. Soap is commonly a natural long chain fatty acid. Because it is natural, soap is broken down by micro-organisms to smaller naturally occurring molecules.
Are soapless or synthetic detergents biodegradable biodegradable? Explain. Soapless or synthetic detergents were originally made from aromatic compounds that produced good cleaning agents. Unfortunately, however, they were not broken down by micro-organisms and remained in water systems creating foam.
Are modern synthetic detergents biodegradable? Explain. Modern detergents, although still produced synthetically, can be broken down by microorganisms, so are considered to be biodegradable. They have an added advantage over soap in that they are effective as cleaning agents in hard water and in cold water.
How does the skin act as a barrier? •The skin is an organ to separate the body from the external environment. The epidermis forms an effective barrier to separate the rest of the body from the external environment.
How does the skin act in body temperature control? When sweat, excreted from glands in the skin, evaporates, it cools the body surface. This helps to maintain the body temperature at 37oC.
What are microflora? •Microflora are microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoa, that live in harmless association with our skin.
When can microflora be harmful? If the skin surface is broken and they are able to enter the bloodstream.
What is pH? How can you measure it? pH is a degree of the acidity of a substance from 1-14. It can be measured by using indicators such as universal indicator.
What is the natural pH of the skin? 5-6.
Identify a cosmetic where water is the solvent. facial cleaners, hair shampoo, conditioners, moisturisers..
Identify an external medication where water is the solvent. Some creams and calamine lotion use water as a solvent. Antiseptic solutions like dettol are dissolved in water before use.
Identify a cosmetic where alcohol is the solvent. Facial toner and aftershave, perfumes, hair sprays and hair revitalisers and personal insect repellents.
Identify an external medication where alcohol is the solvent. Iodine is dissolved in alcohol for use as a common antiseptic. Alcohol is also used in spray on pain killers.
How do subdermal implants release their medication? These implants release low, stable amounts of chemicals directly into surrounding tissue and the bloodstream for periods of months to several years.
What is the role of the stomach in digestion? Beginning the breakdown of protein into amino acids by activating 'protease' enzymes in the acidic environment.
What is the role of the small intestine in digestion? The small intestine produces enzymes that complete the digestion process - Bile breaks down fats, pancreatic juices help break down carbohydrates. It is also the organ from which digested foods are absorbed into the bloodstream.
What is the pH of the stomach and small intestine? The stomach has a pH of 2 and the small intestine has a pH of about 8.
Created by: missbingham