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psych ch. 2 key term
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psych ch. 2 key term
psych chapter 2 key terms
Question  Answer 

hypothesis  a specific prediction about some phenomenon (ifthen) 
theory  a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another 
variable  any characteristic or factor that can vary 
operational definition  defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it 
unobtrusive measures  record behavior in a way that keeps participants unaware that they are being observed 
archival measures  records or documents that arleady exist 
informed consent  before people agree to particpate in research they should be informed aobut the studys purpose and procedures, potential benefits and risks to participants, the right to decline participation and withdraw at any time without penalty, and privacy 
descriptive research  seeks to identify ghow humans and other animals behave, particular in natural settings 
case study  an indepth analysis of an individual, group or event. 
naturalistic observation  the researcher observes behavior as it occurs in a natural setting 
survery research  information about a topic is obtained by administering questionnaires or interviews to many people 
population  consists of all the individuals that we are interested in drawing conclusions about 
sample  a subset of individuals drawn from the larger population 
representiative sample  one that reflects the important characterists of the population 
random sampling  in which every member of the poopulation has an erqual probability of being chosen to participate in the survery 
correlation research  three componets: 1)researcher measures one variable (X) such as people's age 2) the researcher measures a second variable (y) such as selfreported datime sleepiness 3)the researcher statisticall determines whether X and Y are related 
correlation coefficient  is a statistic that indicates the direction and strength of the relation between two variables 
positive correlation  means that higher scores on one variavle are associated with higher scores on a second variable 
negative correlation  occurs when higher scors on one variavle are associated with lower scores on a second variable 
scatterplots  graphs that show the correlation between two variables 
experiment  three charactertics: munipulates one or more variables, 2) measures whether this maniputation influences other variables, 3) attempts to control extraneous factors that might influence the outcome of the experiment 
independent variavle  refers to the facto that is manipulated by the experimenter 
dependent variable  is the factor that is measured by the experimenter and may be influenced by the independent variable 
experimental group  is the group that receives a treatment or an active level of the independent variable 
control group  is not exposed to the treatment or ceveives a zerolevel of the independent variable 
rabdom assignment  a procedure in which each participant has an equal likelihood of being assigned to any one group withitn an experienent 
counterbalancing  a prodcedure in which the order of condidtions is varied so that no condition has an overall advantage relative to the others 
internal validity  represent the degree to which an experiment supports clear casual conclusions 
placebo effect  peoplle receiving a treatment show a cahnge in behavior because of their expectatioins not beacuse the treatment itself had any specific effect 
placebo  refers to a substance that has no pharmacological effect 
experimenter expectancy effects  refers to the subtle and unintional ways researchrs influence their particpants to respond in a manner that is consistent with the researchers hypothesis 
double blind procedure  in which both the partipant and experimentor are kept blind as to which experiemntal condition the participant is in 
external validity  which is the degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to other populations settings and conidtions 
replication  is the process of repeating a study to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated 
mode  is the most frequently occuring score in a distribution 
median  the point that divides a distribution oif scores in half when those scores are arranged in order from lowest to highest 
mean  is the arithmetic average of a set of scores 
range  which is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution 
standard deviation  takes into account how muhc each score in a distrib. differs from the mean 
inferential statistics  tells us how likely it is that our findings are merely a chance occurence 
statistical significance  means that it is very unlikely that a particular finding occured by chance alone 
metaanalysis  a stitatical procedure for combing the results of different studies that examine the same topic 
random assignment  a procedure in which each particpant has an equal likelihood of being assignmed to one group within an experiment 
descriptive statistics  allow us to summarize and descrive the characterists of a set or distribution of data 
demand characteristics  are cues that particpants pick up about the hypothesis of a study or about how they are supposed to behave 
Created by:
griffinb