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Camponeschi - Scientific Method

problem a question you are trying to answer - also known as experimental question
hypothesis a prediction based on prior knowledge/observations - should be written in the If... (independent variable), then... (dependent variable) because... (facts you know to be true/real-life observations)
experiment a controlled test to test hypothesis
results data from experiment
control the sample for which the independent variable was not given. used as a basis for COMPARISON
constant what is kept the SAME during an experiment
independent variable what you, the scientist, change during the lab. the ONLY thing you want to change during a lab.
dependent variable what you measure during a lab. this changes "depending on" the independent variable.
conclusion the answer you have found from your results. you either accept or reject your hypothesis.
communication giving the results and conclusion to other scientists/public. an example is a lab report.
Good experimental designs do what with the constants? Make sure as many constants are the same as possible.
The purpose of the control is to... is to compare your experiment to - it lets you see if your independent variable had an effect on the dependent variable.
The only two things that should change during an experiment are... the independent variable (which you the scientist change) and the dependent variable, (which is what you the scientist measure).
Which gives you the answer to your experimental problem - the independent variable or the dependent variable? dependent variable
On a graph, what axis does the independent variable go? x-axis (side/horizontal axis)
On a graph, what axis does the dependent variable go? y-axis (side/vertical axis)
What does a graduated cylinder measure and in what units? measures volume in ml (milliliters)
what does a ruler measure and in waht units? measures length in mm (millimeter), cm (centimeter), m (meter)
What does balance measure and in waht units? measures mass and in g (grams)
Qualitative data describes appearance, smell, texture, sound or taste (no measurement)
quantitative data measurements (length, volume, mass)
For what kind of data do you use a bar graph? data that comes in separate, distinct categories.
For what kind of data do you use a line graph? for data where the dependent variable is CONTINUOUS - when there are other points between the ones you measured
For what kind of data do you use a pie chart? when the data are in categories that would total to 100%
When graphing data - should you graph all the data or the totals/averages? Totals/averages
What are some factors you should consider when describing the validity/reliability of an experiment? Large sample size, consisten results ( no outliers), careful execution of experiment - no human error
If the results of an experiment are inconclusive, then should you accept or reject your hypothesis? reject the hypothesis
Created by: camponel on 2011-09-08

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