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# Camponeschi

### Camponeschi - Scientific Method

Question | Answer |
---|---|

problem | a question you are trying to answer - also known as experimental question |

hypothesis | a prediction based on prior knowledge/observations - should be written in the If... (independent variable), then... (dependent variable) because... (facts you know to be true/real-life observations) |

experiment | a controlled test to test hypothesis |

results | data from experiment |

control | the sample for which the independent variable was not given. used as a basis for COMPARISON |

constant | what is kept the SAME during an experiment |

independent variable | what you, the scientist, change during the lab. the ONLY thing you want to change during a lab. |

dependent variable | what you measure during a lab. this changes "depending on" the independent variable. |

conclusion | the answer you have found from your results. you either accept or reject your hypothesis. |

communication | giving the results and conclusion to other scientists/public. an example is a lab report. |

Good experimental designs do what with the constants? | Make sure as many constants are the same as possible. |

The purpose of the control is to... | is your basis of comparison - it is your baseline - it lets you see if your independent variable had an effect on the dependent variable or the independent variable showed no difference between the control and experimental group. |

The only two things that should change during an experiment are... | the independent variable (which you the scientist change) and the dependent variable, (which is what you the scientist measure). |

Which gives you the answer to your experimental problem - the independent variable or the dependent variable? | dependent variable |

On a graph, what axis does the independent variable go? | x-axis (side/horizontal axis) |

On a graph, what axis does the dependent variable go? | y-axis (side/vertical axis) |

What does a graduated cylinder measure and in what units? | measures volume in ml (milliliters) |

what does a ruler measure and in what units? | measures length in mm (millimeter), cm (centimeter), m (meter) |

What does balance measure and in what units? | measures mass and in g (grams) |

Qualitative data | describes appearance, smell, texture, sound or taste (no measurement) |

quantitative data | measurements (length, volume, mass) |

For what kind of data do you use a bar graph? | data that comes in separate, distinct categories. when the independent variable is qualitative |

For what kind of data do you use a line graph? | for data where the independent variable is quantitative - when you are watching ONE THING (OR AN AVERAGE OF THINGS) over CONTINUOUS TIME |

For what kind of data do you use a pie chart? | when the data are in categories that would total to 100% |

When graphing data - should you graph all the data or the totals/averages? | Totals/averages |

What are some factors you should consider when describing the validity/reliability of an experiment? | Large sample size, consisten results ( no outliers), careful execution of experiment - no human error |

If the results of an experiment are inconclusive, then should you accept or reject your hypothesis? | reject the hypothesis |

For what kind of data do you use a scatterplot? | When the independent variable is quantitative (and not time) when you are comparing two differentt things |

True or False - Both the independent variable and the dependent variable are in the problem | True - both the IV & DV are in the problem |

True or False - It is okay to write a one-word answer when identifying the independent or dependent variable | FALSE! it is NEVER okay to write a one-word answer when identifying IV or DV |

What is the opposite of a variable? | a constant |

Created by:
camponel