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PSC CH 1-2

Comparative Politics the study and comparison of domestic politics across countries or states: struggle for power across states.
Analytical Concepts assumptions and theories that guide our research; Help ask questions about cause and effect
Methods Ways to study and test those theories; Provide tools to seek out explanations
Ideals values and beliefs about preferred outcomes; Provide a way to compare what we find in political life to what we would prefer
Institutions organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake; They lay out the rules, norms, and structures through with we operate; Shape how the game of politics is played
Politics The struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group; the struggle for the authority to make decisions that will affect the public as a whole; competition for public power
Power the ability to influence or impose one’s will on others; the ability to extend one’s will; influence others to take a course of action that they would not take unless compelled
Comparative Method a way to make comparisons across cases and draw conclusions
Inductive Reasoning -Research that works from case studies in order to generate hypotheses; single case approach; can be a building block to greater theories in comparative politics; LARGELY USED IN COMPARATIVE POLITICS
Deductive Reasoning Research that works from a hypothesis that is then tested against data
Difference between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning Inductive starts with the evidence as a way to come to a hypothesis while Deductive starts with the hypothesis and the looks for evidence
Correlation An apparent association between two or more variables
Quantitative Method Gathering of statistical data over a large number of countries in order to look for correlations and test hypotheses about cause and effect
4 guidelines for how to be more scientific 1. Goal is Inference 2. Procedures should be Public 3. Conclusions are Uncertain 4. Content is the Method
Qualitative Method - Mastery of a limited number of cases through the detail study of their history, language and culture; emphasis on depth over breadth
Game Theory An approach that emphasizes how actors or organizations behave in their goal to influence others; Built upon Assumptions of Rational Choice
Freedom The ability of an individual to act independently, without fear of restriction or punishment by the state or other individuals or groups in society
Equality A shared material standard of individuals within a community, society, or country
Scientific Method 1. Theory 2. Hypothesis 3. Research Design 4. Gather Data & Test 5. Conclusions
Operationalizing Variables finding a measurable, quantifiable, and valid index for your variable; isolate variable and come up with working definition for it; A problem with this is that often people disagree on definitions
Behaviorialism Emphasized explanation of why? in politics; more emphasis on scientific method; more emphasis at looking at large end studies
Modernization Theory As societies developed, they would take on a set of common characteristics, including democracy and capitalism; if you aren’t capitalist democracies then you aren’t modernized
Problems of Field Research 1.Money 2.Language Skills 3.Access 4.Selection Bias 5.Endogeneity 6.Quantification
Selection Bias A focus on effects rather than causes, which can lead to inaccurate conclusions about correlation or causation
Endogeneity The issue that cause and effect are not often clear, in that variables may be both cause and effect in relationship to one another; Dependent Variable could cause Independent Variable and/or vise versa
Traditional Approach Emphasis on describing political systems and their various institutions
Rational Choice Approach that assumes that individuals weigh the costs and benefits and make choices to maximize their benefits; individuals are rational and we seek to maximize our utility; Formal modeling; Emphasize Grand theories;
Culturalists Say general theories are impossible; Focus on Thick Description which means gaining every bit of information that you can about a particular problem in a particular place; look at gender, identity, ethnicity, etc.
Structuralists Focus on institutions and rely on historical analyses; Karl Marx is the most famous Structuralist
State Max Weber “an organization with a monopoly on violence in a territorially bounded space; Sovereign; highly institutionalized
What are States For (4)? 1. Protection (Stability) 2. Order (ensuring rights) 3. Beliefs 4. Organizations deemed necessary to carry out identified goals
Sovereignty the ability to carry out actions or policies within territory independently from external actors or internal rivals.
Regime the fundamental rules and norms of politics embodying long-term goals regarding individual freedom and collective equality, where power should reside, and the use of that power; institutionalized
Government leadership or in charge of running the state; weakly institutionalized; often characterized by elected officials, such as a president or prime minister, or unelected officials, such as in authoritarianism; Limited by the existing regime;
Government, Regime, State? Institutionalization Order Government is Lease Institutionalized Regime State is most institutionalized
What are the two paths of Political Organization and their definitions Consensus= Individuals band together to protect themselves and create common rules Coercion= Individuals are brought together by a ruler, who imposes authority and monopolizes power
3 Advantages of the State 1.encourage economic development 2.encourage technological innovation 3. The state assisted in the homogenization of people
Legitimacy a value whereby something or someone is recognized and accepted by the public as right and proper, thus giving it power and authority; does NOT rely on coercion
3 types of legitimacy Traditional, Charismatic, Legal
Traditional Legitimacy Legitimacy that accepts aspects of politics because they have been institutionalized over a long period of time built by habit and custom over time, stressing history; strongly institutionalized; Ex:Monarch
Charismatic Legitimacy Legitimacy built on force of ideas embodied by an individual leader; One person can move the public through ideas and the manner in which he/she presents them Ex: Revolutionary hero (Vladimir Lenin)
Rational Legal Legitimacy Legitimacy based on a system of laws and procedures and the offices that create and enforce those rules; highly institutionalized; Most modern states Ex: Elected Executive (Obama)
Federalism A system in which significant state powers, such as taxation, lawmaking, and security, are devolved to regional or local bodies; some people believe that it weakens state efficiency by dispersing power among many local authorities
Unitary States States in which most political power exists at the national level, with limited local authority; local interests can be represented without recourse to regional bodies
Devolution - A process in which political power is “sent down” to lower levels of state and government
Strong States States able to fulfill basic tasks: defend territory, make and enforce rules and rights, collect taxes, and manage economy.
Weak States States that cant execute basic tasks
Failed State - State so weak that its political structure collapses, leading to anarchy and violence Ex: Afghanistan and Iraq
What makes European States so stable according to Herbst? Why? Interstate Conflict because it promotes nationalism/common identity and improves administration, organization of government, and tax collection
Capacity The ability of the state to wield its power to carry out basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, managing the economy, and reconciling freedom and equality;
Whats needed for Capacity 1. Legitimacy 2. Money 3. Organization 4. Leadership
Autonomy The ability of the state to wield its power independently of the public or international actors; High autonomy works on behalf of the public while Low autonomy works on behalf of a few private individuals
What was the problem with city states? too small and if they were attacked then you couldn’t protect the city-state well
What were the problems with empires? too big; too many people and cultures are involved; too many different languages
What were the problems with principalities in the wrong place at the wrong time; wiped out by the Mongols
What was the importance of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) It established sovereignty
3 Inner Justifications for Legitimations of Domination 1. Traditional Dominiation 2. Charismatic Domination 3. Legal Domination
Traditional Domination the authority of the “eternal yesterday” i.e. of the mores sanctified through the unimaginably ancient recognition and habitual orientation to conform
Charismatic Domination the authority of the extraordinary and personal gift of grace (charisma), the absolutely personal devotion and personal confidence in revelation, heroism, and other qualities of individual leadership
Legal Domination virtue of the belief in the validity of legal statute and functional “competence” based on rationally created rules.
Created by: lizk