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Anatomy Chapter One

What is the study of structure? Anatomy
What is the study of function? Physiology
What is the inter-relationship of Anatomy and Physiology? Function is determined by the structure, or anatomy, of something.
What are the ten characteristics of life? movement, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation, and excretion
What is the definition of movement? change in position or motion
What is the definition of responsiveness? the ability to react to the environment
What is the definition of growth? enlargement and replacement
What is the definition of reproduction? producing offspring
What is the definition of respiration? obtaining oxygen and removing waste gases
What is the definition of digestion? the breaking down of food to release energy
What is the definition of absorption? movement of materials across a membrane
What is the definition of circulation? movement of material within a body
What is the definition of assimilation? changing absorbed material chemically so they can be used
What is the definition of excretion? removing wastes
What are the five requirements for life? water, food, oxygen, heat and pressure
Why do we need water? Water is required for many metabolic processes and provides the environment in which most of them take place. It also transports substances within the organism and is important in regulating body temperature.
Why do we need food? Food provides the body with necessary chemicals in addition to water. Some of these chemicals are used as energy sources, others supply raw materials for building new living matter, and still others help regulate vital chemical reactions.
Why do we need oxygen? It is used to release energy from food. This energy, in turn, drives metabolic processes.
Why do we need heat? The amount of heat present partly determines the rate at which metabolic reactions occur. The more heat, the more rapidly chemical reactions take place.
Why do we need pressure? Atmospheric pressure, the weight of the air above the body, is important in breathing; heart action also produces pressure, which forces blood through blood vessels.
What is homeostasis? the maintenance of a steady internal environment
What are homeostatic mechanisms? any "reactions" that maintain homeostasis
What are the eight levels of organization? atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
What is in the axial division? dorsal cavity and ventral cavity (head, neck, and trunk)
What is in the dorsal cavity? cranial cavity and vertebral cavity
What is in the cranial cavity? brain
What is in the vertebral cavity? spinal cord
What is in the ventral cavity? thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
what is in the thoracic cavity? mediastinum and pleural cavity
What is in the mediastinum? heart, trachea, esophagus and trachea
What is in the pleural cavity? lungs
What is in the abdominopelvic cavity? abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
What is in the abdominal cavity? stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, most of intestine
What is in the pelvic cavity? bladder, reproductive organs and part of the large intestine
What is in the appendicular division? forelimbs and hindlimbs
What are the four miscellaneous cavities? oral, nasal, orbital, and tympanic
What is the oral cavity? mouth-teeth and tongue
What is the nasal cavity? nose-sinuses
What is the orbital cavity? eye sockets- eyes
What is the tympanic cavity? middle ear- contains ossicles
What are parietal membranes? membranes lining cavities
What are visceral membranes? membranes covering organs
What are the pleural membranes? associated with lungs
What are the pericardial membranes? associated with the heart
What are the peritoneum membranes? associated with the abdominopelvic region
What is the integumentary system? body coverings; includes skin, nails, hair, and sweat and sebaceous glands
What organ systems are associated with support and movement and what organs do they include? skeletal- includes bones ligaments and cartilage muscular- includes muscles and tendons
What organ systems are associated with integration and coordination and what organs do they include? nervous system- includes brain, spinal cord, nerves, eyes, and ears endocrine system- include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as the pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland
What organ systems are associated with transportation and what organs do they include? cardiovascular system- includes heart, arteries, veins, capillaries and blood lymphatic system- includes lymph, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodes
What organ systems are associated with absorption and excretion and what organs do they include? digestive system- includes the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine Respiratory system- includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lung
What organs are in the reproductive system? male- scrotum, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis and urethra female- ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva
Describe the anatomical position. standing erect, with feet facing forward, arms at side and palms forward
Superior above
Inferior below
Anterior ventral; towards front
Posterior dorsal; towards back
Medial middle
Lateral sides
Proximal closer to the point of attachment
Distal farther from the point of attachment
Superficial surface
Deep more internal
Sagittal longitudinal- divides left and right
Midsagittal longitudinal and medial
Transverse divides upper and lower
Coronal/ Frontal divides front and back
Oblique divides in a 45 degree angle
Abdominal abdomen
Acromial point of shoulder
Antebrachial forearm
Antecubital front of elbow
Axillary armpit
Brachial arm
Buccal cheek
Carpal wrist
Celiac abdomen, stomach
Cephalic head
Cervical neck
Costal ribs
Coxal hip
Crural front of lower leg, shin
Cubital elbow
Digital fingers
Dorsal back
Femoral thigh
Frontal forehead
Genital reproductive organs
Gluteal buttocks
Inguinal depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh; groin
Lumbar region of lower back between ribs and pelvis (loin)
Mammary breast
Mental chin
Nasal nose
Occipital lower posterior rebion of head
Oral mouth
Otic ear
Palmar palm
Patellar knee
Pectoral chest
Pedal foot
Pelvic hip bone
Perineal region between anus and external reproductive organs
Plantar sole of the foot
Popliteal area behind knees
Sacral posterior region between hip bones
Sternal middle of the thorax, anteriorly
Tarsal ankle, instep
Umbilical navel
Vertebral spinal column
Sural calf
Created by: ewilham