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Leach Soc Chapter 4

Leach Sociology Terms Chapter 4

social structure network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interaction
status socially defined position in a group or in a society
role behavior-the rights and obligations-expected of someone occupying a particular status
ascribed status status assigned according to standards that are beyond a person's control
achieved status status acquired by an individual on the bases of some special skill, knowledge, or ability
master status status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person's life and determining his or her social identity
reciprocal roles corresponding roles that define the patterns of intraction between related statuses
role expectations socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role
role performance actual behavior of a person performing a role
role set different roles attached to a single status
role conflict situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectations of one role makes is difficult to fulfill the expectations of another role
role strain situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role
social institution system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society
exchange individual, group, or societal interaction undertaken in an effort to receive a reward in return for actions
reciprocity idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you something in return
exchange theory theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with other people
competition interaction that occurs when two or more persons or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
cooperation interaction that occurs when two or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people
accommodation state of ballance between cooperation and conflict
group set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who posses some degree of common identity
subsistence strategies ways in which a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members
preindustrial society type of society in which food production-carried out through the use of human and animal labor-is the main economic activity
hunting and gathering societies type of society characterized by the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals as the main form of subsistence
pastoral society type of society characterized by a reliance on domesticated herd animals as the main form of subsistence
division of labor specialization by individuals or goroups in the performance of specific economic activities
horticultural society type of society characterized by a reliance on vegetables grown in garden plots as the main form of subsistence
agricultural society type of society characterized by the use of draft animals and plows in the tilling of fields
barter practice of exchanging one good for another
industrial societies type of society in which the mechanized production of goods is the main economic activity
urbanization concentration of the population in cities
postindustrial society type of society in which economic activity centers on the production of information and the provision of services
mechanical solidarity close-knit social relationships common in preindustrial societies that result when a small group of people share the same values and perform the same tasks
organic solidarity impersonal social relationships, common in industrial societies, that arise with increased job specialization
Gemeinschaft societies in which most members know one another, relationships are close, and activities center on the family and the community
Gesellschaft societies in which social relationships are based on need rather than on emotion, relationships are impersonal and temporary, and idividual goals are more important than group goals
aggregate group of people gathered in the same place at the same time who lack organization or lasting patterns of interaction
social category group of peope who share a common trait or status
dyad group with two members
triad three person group
small group group with few enough numbers that everyone is able to interact on a face-to-face basis
formal group a group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
informal group a group in which there is no official structure or established rules of conduct
primary group small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis
secondary group group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
reference group any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they often adopt
in-group group that an individual belongs to and identifies with
out-group any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with
e-community a community of people who interact through the internet or other electronic communication
social network web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of an individual's interactions with other people
instrumental leaders leaders who are task-oriented
expressive leaders leaders who are emotion-oriented
formal organization large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
bureaucracy ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures
rationality the process of subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control
voluntary association nonprofit association formed to pursue some common interest
iron law of oligarchy tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people
Created by: CoachLeach