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Ch 5 Chemistry

Pivot Point Salon Fundamentals Cosmetology Chemistry

"The term used to identify anything that occupies space is called:" "matter"
"Melting ice changes water from a solid to a liquid. Boiling water changes water from a liquid to a gas. These are examples of what type of change?" "physical"
"Atoms make up elements. Elements make up matter. Therefore all matter is comprised of:" "atoms"
"All matter that is living or once was living contains carbon and deals with:" "organic chemistry"
"Basic substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances are called:" "elements"
"Atoms that are the same form a(n):" "element"
"Two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond is a(n):" "molecule"
"When two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom the result is water which is called a(n):" "compound"
"Carbon nitrogen oxygen and hydrogen are the building blocks of:" "amino acids"
"What is created when amino acids join together in chains?" "proteins"
"What makes up the primary composition of hair?" "keratin"
"Which bonds found in the hair can be easily broken by heat or water?" "hydrogen bonds"
"The bonds found within hair that help organize protein chains in order to build hair are called:" "side bonds"
"What is the side bond that is of the greatest concern to the salon professional?" "disulfide bond"
"Describe in basic terms how human hair is formed?" "protein chains connect to other protein chains"
"Substances of acidic or alkaline nature dissolve in water and/or contain:" "water"
"A solution that has more positive hydrogen ions than negative hydroxide ions is:" "acidic"
"A pH of 5 is how many more times acidic than a pH of 6?" 10
"Distilled water with a pH of 7 is considered:" "neutral"
"In what pH range is skin and hair?" "4.5 to 5.5"
"In the process of making a cup of instant hot chocolate what would the powdered chocolate represent?" "solute"
"A mixture of two or more kinds of molecules evenly dispersed would be a(n):" "solution"
"A substance that is able to dissolve another substance is called a(n):" "solvent"
"The instructions on a product state to shake well before use which indicates this product is probably a(n):" "suspension"
"What is formed when two or more non-mixable substances are united with the help of a binder?" "emulsion"
"Mixtures of organic substances and a medicinal agent are:" "ointments"
"Mixtures of fats and oils converted to fatty acids by heat and then purified fall under which of the following classifications?" "soaps"
"Which type of cosmetic requires sifting until free of coarse gritty particles?" "powder"
"Which of the following classifications would identify emulsions that are generally used by salon professionals?" "oil-in-water emulsion"
"Which term means non-mixable?" "immiscible"
"Cleaning the hair and scalp and removing all foreign matter without adversely affecting either the scalp or hair is called:" "shampooing"
"The primary ingredient of most shampoos is:" "deionized water"
"If water contains certain salts of calcium magnesium and other metals it is classified as:" "hard water"
"What is the name given to purifying water by passing it through a porous substance?" "filtration"
"Which shampoo type is formulated to have the same pH as the hair and skin?" "acid-balanced shampoo"
"Which shampoo would NOT be used for color-treated or damaged hair?" "plain shampoo"
"Which shampoo would most likely be used to remove product build-up?" "clarifying shampoo"
"Which shampoo would generally be recommended for an individual who is ill and bedridden?" "powder dry shampoo"
"Which shampoo type is designed to treat scalp and hair problems or disorders?" "medicated shampoo"
"Which shampoo contains temporary color molecules that adhere to the hair and deposit color?" "color shampoo"
"Which conditioner will penetrate into the damaged hair shaft and deposit proteins into the cortex?" "body-building conditioner"
"The main ingredients found in most neutralizers are:" "hydrogen peroxide sodium perborate or sodium bromate"
"The color molecules in permanent hair color enter the hair with the aid of:" "an alkaline substance"
"What occurs during oxidation?" "a substance loses an electron and oxygen is acquired"
"Oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide have the ability to release:" "oxygen"
"Which components are contained within temporary colors?" "certified colors"
"Which term identifies the change assigned to an oxidative hair color procedure?" "chemical change"
"Ammonia a colorless gas with a strong odor is composed of hydrogen and:" "nitrogen"
"What would be used to determine if a bottle of hydrogen peroxide is still potent if the purchase date was no longer on the label?" "hydrometer"
"Which party is responsible for distribution of Material Safety Data Sheets?" "manufacturer"
"An example of a/an _____ is when atoms chemically combine to form compounds." "Chemical bond"
"Following a sodium hydroxide procedure additional chemical procedures that use thioglycolic acid:" "May never be used"
"When two or more kinds of substances combine physically it form a:" "mixture"
"What is the scientific study of matter and the physical changes in matter?" "Chemistry"
"What are the three main parts of an atom" "proton neutron electron"
"surfectant is also known as" "surface active agent"
"____ can change without involving a change in chemical composition" "physical properties"
"When a solute dissolves in a solvent it is" "a solution"
"What is the science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself?" "Chemistry"
"The backbone of protein bonds is the" "peptide bonds"
"The atomic number is the number of _____ found in the nucleus of an atom" "Protons"
"Polymers of amino acids covalently linked through peptide bonds into a chain are" "proteins"
"The study of minerals involves" "inorganic chemistry"
"Ointments are mixtures of organic substances and are" "medicinal"
"redox is also known" "oxidation-reduction"
"The six general cosmetic classificaitons used in the cosmetology industry" "are based on how well a substance combines with another substance"
"Miscible liquids are capable of being" "mixed together into a stable solution"
"The shine or luster of hair is the" "cosmetic apperance"
"If an unstable atom merges with an atom of a dissimilar element a ______ is produced" "Molecule"
"How many common amino acids are there?" "Twenty-two"
"A pure substance is" "mater not combined with materials of different chemical compositions"
"A simple definition of oxidation is" "The gaining of oxygen"
"The science that deals with compounds lacking carbon is" "inorganic chemistry"
A change in a substance that creates a new substance with properties or characteristics different from the original substance is a: Chemical Change
Performing a haircut, shattering glass, or performing a thermal style are all what types of changes? Physical
What type of change is the rusting of a nail? chemical
Within an atom, protons and neutrons are found in the: nucleus
The shell of an atom consists of electons
pH scale indicates whether a substance is... acidic, alkaline, neutral
Solutions with equal hydrogen and hydroxide ions are... neutral
What governmental act defines items as "cosmetics"? The food and drug act of 1938
How many classifications are assigned to categorize cosmetics? 6
What contains a lipophilic part, a hydrophilic part, and is used to remove oil from hair? surfactant
Which type of shampoo contains low alkaline content and a low concentration of surface acting agents and generally does not correct any special condition? all-purpose
Acid rinses help to: close the cuticle
What type of conditioners coat the hair shaft and restore moisture and oils, but do not penetrate into the cortex or replace keratin in the shaft? instant
What type of conditioner contains hydrolyzed animal proteins and are recommended for dry, brittle hair that has been mechanically or chemically damaged? moisturizing
What conditioner fortifies damage, alters the way hair behaves, and protects against further damage? protein
The purpose of a waving lotion is to break disulfide bonds by softening the protein structure and allowing the protein chains to assume the shape of the tool
Purpose of neutralizer is to restore disufide bonds into the new configurations
What type of wave is processed without heat? alkaline
What type of color is most frequently used in permanent hair color? Aniline
What product is used for lightening procedures such as highlighting/weaving? off the scalp/powder bleaches
Most common oxidizing agent used in hair color and lightening hydrogen peroxide
What is incompatible with other chemical procedure such as perms and oxidative hair coloring? metallic dyes
Created by: kate_zona on 2011-08-31

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