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AP 9th Ed. Prologue

Bell West / Terms in Myers 9th Psychology textbook

QuestionAnswer
Wilhelm Wundt Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
Edward Bradford Titchener Titchener used introspection to search for the mind's structural elements
Structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structional elements of the human mind
Functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function; how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish.
William James Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, functionalist, wrote the first psychology textbook
Mary Calkins and Margaret Washburn First women to graduate with psychology PhD. and were the first women to be presidents of the American Psychological Association.
Sigmund Freud Personality Theorist and founder of the Psychoanalytic theory of psychology. Controversial for his ideas on personality development.
John B. Watson Studied psychology as a science of observable behavior. Famous for conditioning studies on "Little Albert"
Behaviorism The view that psychology, (1) should be an objective science, (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Contemporary behaviorist, still accept (1) but not (2).
Humanistic psychology Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
Cognitive neuroscience The inter-disciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language)
B.F. Skinner A leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior.
Psychology The science of mental processes and behavior.
Nature-Nurture Issue The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that gene and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today"s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Natural Selection The principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contribution to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Biopsychosocial Approach Integrated viewpoint that incorporates various levels of analysis and offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process. It incorporates biological, psychological and social-cultural levels of analysis.
Neuroscience Focus is on how the body and the brain enable emotions, memories and sensory experiences.
Evolutionary psychology How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes.
Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
Psychodynamic Perspective How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
Behavioral Perspective How we learn observable responses.
Cognitive Perspective How we encode, process, store and retrieve information.
Social-Cultural Perspective How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Basic research Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied research Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Counseling psychology A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and achieving greater well-being.
Clinical psychology A branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders.
Psychiatry A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatment as well as psychological therapy.
Created by: rkratina on 2011-08-18



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